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Weed seed in dairy manure depends on collection site

Dairy manure collected for 2 years from various sites in seven Central California dairies was found to contain viable weed seed. Weed seed Contamination Was most Severe when manure was taken from dry COW pens and liquid manure sedimentation handling facilities. Composting did not eliminate all viable weed seed.

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Dairy manure has been an important soil amendment, particularly to less productive soils. It also has, however, a poor reputation among growers. Its use on farms has sometimes been correlated with weedier fields compared with farms not using it. The reasons for higher weed populations could be due to weeds in the manure, lack of effective composting, or contamination of the manure by windblown seeds from adjacent areas.

Tulare County has one of the largest dairy industries in the United States, and the manure produced as a by-product represents a major revenue source. It is spread on crop land within the region, but because of its reputation as a weed seed source, poultry manure or commercial fertilizers are often preferred as sources of nitrogen and phosphate.

Poultry manure is nearly weedfree, depending on how much soil and litter becomes mixed with it. Weeds are broken down by the grinding action of sand in the gizzard. In dairy animals, many seeds pass through the digestive system and remain viable. The digestive system may, in fact, loosen the hard seed coats of weeds, thus enhancing germination.

Fig. 1. Weed seed species found in dairy manure.

The objectives of our study of weed seeds in dairy manure were to learn which sites on the dairy contribute the most weed seed, what weed species are most prevalent and whether composting as practiced in commercial dairies effectively reduces weed seed viability.


Manure samples were taken from six dairies in Tulare County and one in Kings County. Dairies selected were typical of those within the southern San Joaquin Valley. The dairies ranged in size from 350 to 1,500 cows and were categorized as traditional open corral with shades.

Seven sets of samples were taken from each dairy in 1988 and 1989. Samples were taken seasonally in April, July, October and December of 1988 and in April, July and December of 1989. Sites of sampling at each dairy included: dry cow (nonlactating) pens, milk-producing cow pens, compost piles, solid waste separators and sedimentation ponds. Each sample was a composite of five subsamples representative of the site and was 2.2 pounds in weight. Compost samples were taken from five of the dairies having manure piles 6 to 8 weeks old and were sampled from within the piles at least 2 feet deep.

To compare the relative content of viable weed seed in manure at the various sites of collection, we adhered to the following procedure. Manure samples were air dried and then gently pulverized. The manure was spread out over the surface of two 18- x 18-inch flats containing UC No. 2 potting mix (vermiculite, peat and lightly sprinkled two to three times a day thereafter, depending on moisture demand, to maintain surface moisture. Weed seed germination was accomplished in a greenhouse held at 20° to 25°C to assure germination of both cool- and warm-season weeds.

At 10 days, the first weed seedling counts were taken. The germinated weeds were removed, the flats were air dried for 1 week, and the surface was remixed and watered again for another 10 days, after which a second weed count was taken. Weeds were identified by species. Those that were difficult to identify were transplanted and grown to maturity for identification. It was recognized that only a fraction of the weeds present in the manure could be germinated and counted by this method due to dormancy, but relative comparisons could be made among the collection sites.


The weed species most prevalent in manure samples from all of the dairies over the seven sampling times were grasses and broadleaf species (fig. 1). Broadleaf species included: pigweed (Amaranthus spp.), lambsquarter (Chenopodium album), sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus), chickweed (Stellaria media) and such mustard species as shepherds purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) and London rocket (Sisymbrium irio). Grassy weeds included yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca), bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), annual bluegrass (Poa annua) and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli).

When different sites of manure collection were compared, samples differed in viable weed seed content. Manure taken from producing cow pens had notably fewer viable weed seeds than that collected from dry cow pens. Presumably, this was due to the lower quality of feed (weedier feed) fed the dry cows (fig. 2). Sediments from liquid manure-handling facilities (solid separator and sedimentation ponds) also contained a high viable weed count.

Fig. 2. Viable weed seed by site of collection, a composite of seven dairies.

Nebraska: Palmer Amaranth Seeds in Manure – What Can You Do?

There are several ways seeds of Palmer amaranth can be introduced into your fields. Manure is one of them. Specifically, Palmer amaranth seeds that contaminate animal feed may survive digestion; and when that manure is spread onto cropland, those seeds may germinate.

This article provides some answers on four topics:

  1. Overview of Palmer amaranth in Nebraska;
  2. Reducing Palmer amaranth seed in feed;
  3. Reducing Palmer amaranth seed in manure; and
  4. Field application of contaminated manure.

1. Herbicide-Resistant Palmer amaranth in Nebraska:

Palmer amaranth infestation is increasing in soybean and corn fields (Figure 1) in eastern Nebraska and several other crops such as dry bean and sugarbeet in the Nebraska Panhandle.

Figure 1. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in soybean field (top) in south central Nebraska and atrazine/ALS inhibitors/ glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in corn field (right) near Carleton, NE (Photos by Amit Jhala). Click Image to Enlarge

Palmer amaranth, a member of the pigweed (Amaranthaceae) family, is native to the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It is a small seeded broad leaf weed and is a relatively new weed in Nebraska. Historically, common weeds from the pigweed family reported to occur in Nebraska are tumble pigweed (Amaranthus albus L.), prostrate pigweed (Amaranthus graecizans L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer).

They are usually found throughout Nebraska in dry prairies, cultivated and fallow fields, and roadside, industrial, and waste places. Palmer amaranth has been identified in the last few years in several North Central states, including Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Minnesota, and Illinois, which has raised concerns among weed scientists and growers about the spread of this species into areas not previously reported.

Because of its rapid growth, ability for prolific seed production, and ability to evolve herbicide-resistance, Palmer amaranth can be hard to control in agronomic crop fields.

Palmer amaranth has evolved resistant to several groups of herbicides in Nebraska, including glyphosate (Table 1). Additionally, some Palmer amaranth populations are resistant to multiple herbicides such as atrazine and HPPD-inhibitors. Therefore, growers should pay attention to management of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth as well as follow the best practices to reduce weed seed dissemination.

Type of resistance

Site of action

Example herbicides

Occurrence in Nebraska

Acetolactate synthase (ALS)

Pursuit, Classic, Scepter

West central, south central

Callisto, Laudis, Armezon

West central, south central

Isolated field in west central

2. Reducing Palmer amaranth seed in feed

Don’t assume animal digestion will kill all of the Palmer amaranth seeds. Though it will reduce seed viability, simply feeding the contaminated material to livestock will not eliminate all Palmer amaranth seeds. Grass and soft-coated broadleaf seeds (such as clover and pennycress) are more easily destroyed in digestion than hard-coated seeds – such as Palmer amaranth.

In rumen animals, such as cattle, 27% of amaranth seeds remained viable after digestion. The gizzard digestive system of poultry is highly effective at destroying weed seeds, and only 3.5% of Palmer amaranth seeds fed to ducks were recovered and found viable.

Ensile the feed (if appropriate for the feed type). The fermentation and heat generated during ensiling is quite effective for killing weed seeds. Just one month after contaminated alfalfa haylage was stored, amaranth seed viability dropped by 41%; and in corn silage, the drop was even greater at 60%.

Logically, seed viability continues to decrease as silage storage time increases. Eight weeks of ensiling killed up to 87% of viable amaranth seed; and when feed went through both ensiling and rumen digestion, the seed mortality increased to 89%.

3. Reducing Palmer amaranth seed in manure

Compost solid manure. Internal heat generated by properly composting manure will kill most weed seeds – even the hard-seeded Palmer amaranth. The key word here is “properly.” Aged manure is not composted manure. Proper composting requires active management and must be monitored and aerated for correct weed-killing conditions to develop.

Temperature and moisture are the two most crucial elements for seed mortality in compost. For Palmer amaranth, Wiese et al. (1998) found that sustaining the compost at 140⁰F for three days will virtually eliminate seed viability, so long as a minimum of 35% moisture is maintained.

To account for temperature and moisture uniformity issues that are prevalent in composting, exceeding these minimums and composting at 160⁰F for four days with 50% moisture is recommended. Another study found that it took between 21 and 50 days of composting with proper management to eliminate amaranth seed.

However, research by Wiese et al., Larney and Blackshaw reached 0% viable weed seeds under the best compost management practices possible in a very controlled environment. In contrast, Cudney et al. surveyed actual on-farm composting sites and found that while composting did reduce weed seed viability 90-98% over six to eight weeks, there was still potential for weed seed survival; with varying levels of mortality escape based on operation and weed species.

It was hypothesized that this mortality escape was due to cooler pockets that did not sustain high temperatures for long enough. Therefore, just because manure has been composted does not necessarily mean it is weed seed free.

Liquid manure options are limited. Obviously, liquid manures cannot be piled for composting, and pit storage – including the anaerobic conditions in deep pits – does not significantly contribute to amaranth seed mortality (Allan et al. 2003). Barring expensive heat treatment of the manure, the best option here is application followed by diligent and frequent scouting.

Don’t rely on anaerobic digestion. Though anaerobic digestion of manure may reduce seed viability of some weeds, it has not been found to affect amaranth seed germination beyond the benefits of animal digestion alone.

4. Field Application of Contaminated Manure

Have manure that you think is contaminated? Transport it to nearby fields that can be easily and frequently scouted. Even if the feed was ensiled and the manure was composted before spreading, it’s still possible for weed seeds to remain viable. A 98% reduction in viability seems sufficient, but even low seed survival rates can be problematic.

A survey of fresh dairy manure in New York found an average of 75,000 viable seeds per ton and a range of 0 to 400,000 seeds. A 2% survival of 75,000 seeds would leave 1,500 viable seeds per ton remaining. Applied at 8 tons per acre, that would increase the weed seedbank by 12,000 seeds per acre. This “numbers game” is especially precarious in the case of Palmer amaranth, a prolific seed-producing weed species. A single female plant can produce somewhere between 100,000 to 500,000 seeds depending on competition with crops, other weeds, and management practices.

Figure 2. Palmer amaranth seedlings typically starts emerging in early May and continue emerging until end of August in Nebraska agronomic crops. Click Image to Enlarge

Apply the highest rates of manure to the fewest number of fields as possible to minimize the spread of Palmer amaranth seeds. If these fields can be planted to more competitive crops such as alfalfa, grass pasture, or small grains that could also help to suppress Palmer amaranth growth and reduce seed production.

Scout fields after application. It is crucial to scout early and often for Palmer amaranth in fields that have received possibly contaminated manure. Since this weed has an extended emergence period ranging from May through August (Figure 2), it is important to continually monitor fields.

Additional information and recommendations for Palmer amaranth control in Nebraska can be found in Chahal and Jhala, 2018 and Sarangi and Jhala, 2019). Minimizing the risks from animal manures is an important consideration in controlling this weed.

Common Spikeweed Standards

GENERAL STANDARDS — The standards on this sheet are in part condensed and apply to Common Spikeweed. For greater detail and additional provisions, see the Pre-Variety Germplasm Standards .

APPLICATION — Applications should be submitted electronically on CCIA’s website ( Application to grow and certify seed ) as soon as possible and no later than three (3) weeks after planting. New applicants should contact the CCIA office for instructions on obtaining access to the online application system.

FIELD HISTORY — Land must not have grown or been seeded to any Centromadia species during previous five years to be eligible to produce G1 or G2 seed. Land must not have grown or been seeded to these Centromadia species during the previous two years to produce G3-G10 seed unless the previous crop was of the same released material and of a class equal or higher to that of the crop seed. Common Spikeweed must be planted in distinct rows. Exceptions must be approved by the Seed Certification Office prior to planting.

ISOLATION — Fields or portions of fields producing seed must be isolated the following distances:




G3 to G10

Isolation requirement (any size field)

FIELD INSPECTION — Include a seedling and a seed crop inspection.

Off-Types — Every field should be rogued to remove any plants of another crop or variety, including volunteers. Pre-variety germplasm selections cannot always be differentiated at field inspection. When differences can be distinguished, the maximum mixture of other varieties or definite off-types permitted is as follows:



G3 to G10

Weeds — Fields must be free of any prohibited noxious weeds. Restricted noxious weeds and common weeds difficult to separate must be controlled. Prohibited and Restricted noxious

weeds are listed in the California Seed Law/CA Code of Regulations/Sections 3854 and 3855. See California Seed Law – Prohibited and Restricted Noxious Weed List .

Fields may be refused certification due to unsatisfactory appearance caused by weeds, poor growth, poor stand, disease, insect damage, and any other condition which prevents accurate inspection or creates doubt as to identity of the variety.

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How to Grow a Starter Plant in an Egg Carton

Starting plants from seed in advance of planting them in your garden has several benefits. For example, you can start them indoors in the early spring before your garden soil has warmed up, thereby getting a head start on the growing season. Egg cartons made from pressed paper or cardboard are perfect for this because each individual egg cup in the egg carton is the perfect size for starting a seed. Additionally, the entire egg cup can be buried in the ground because it’s biodegradable, and you can thus avoid disturbing the young plant’s roots during transplanting.

Cut off the top of an empty pressed paper or cardboard egg carton with a pair of scissors. Discard or recycle the top, leaving only the bottom of the egg carton with all of the indented cups where the eggs used to be.

Poke three or four holes — using the tip of a pen, pencil or similar instrument — in the bottom of each indented egg cup or however many egg cups you plan to fill and use as planters. These holes will help each egg cup drain properly.

Place the egg carton on a tray, baking sheet or similar flat surface that has a lip around it. This will help contain any moisture or potting soil that drips or falls out of the egg carton.

Fill each egg cup in the egg carton with a sterile soilless potting mix. Such a mix is superior to standard potting soil or outdoor garden loam because it’s free of bacteria and weed seeds, and is more porous and therefore better for seeds and new plants.

Plant one seed in each filled egg cup. Every plant species has different seeding requirements, but most do fine being buried at a depth that is twice as deep as the seed’s thickness.

Mist the surface of the soilless potting mix with water from a spray bottle once or twice a day, or as necessary to keep the potting mix consistently moist until the seedlings emerge.

Growing from Seed Using Containers

Growing plants from seed isn’t rocket science, but some tried and true tips can help improve the outcome of your efforts.

Growing from seed can be an exciting and rewarding experience. When first starting seeds indoors, a small pocket of space is usually sufficient to achieve germination. Many gardeners prefer to start seeds in an egg carton (or even in the eggshells themselves), in a seed cell pack, in peat pots, or in small, individual containers with holes poked into the bottom for drainage.

Choose a quality potting mix for your seedlings or transplants and enhance it if you wish. Consider perlite to aid in proper drainage and vermiculite to help hold in the moisture without water-logging your plants.

Once you’ve planted and watered your seeds, position them near direct sunlight. You may also suspend a grow light two to three inches above your seedlings if you find your natural light is insufficient.

Maximize Seedling Success

Sowing several seeds per cell or container usually helps guarantee at least one will sprout. However, this also often causes a new dilemma. While an abundance of sprouted seedlings can seem exciting at first, this gardening joy can soon turn to disappointment if the seedlings are left too close together. Called overcrowding, this results in numerous tiny plants fighting for the same growing space, nutrients and water. For best results, thin each cell or container by removing the weaker seedlings to allow proper growing conditions for the healthiest bunch. Separate the seedlings you wish to keep into other containers.

Optimize Growing Conditions for Seedlings

Sowing, sprouting and separating—check. Now it’s time to give your seedlings as strong a start as possible before you move them to their next container. Be sure your seeds are getting about 15 hours of sunlight each day. Depending on where you live and what time of year you’ve chosen to start your seeds, you may need to rely on indoor grow lights to achieve enough light.

Watering is the other vital piece of the puzzle. If you’ve started your seeds in a cell pack or other type of container, consider alternating how you water them. Take turns watering from the top and also placing the containers in a shallow pan of water to allow the soil to absorb water from the bottom up. Smaller containers will need to be watered more frequently than larger ones. Make sure the seedlings don’t dry out or become too damp, as either scenario could be the kiss of death for your young plants.

Encourage Stronger Root Systems with Air Pruning

Air pruning, made possible by specialized containers, offers quite a few benefits to your plants. Air pruning occurs naturally when a plant’s roots are permitted to come in contact with hot, dry air. When the roots hit the air, they are burned off, triggering the plant to produce more roots that branch out constantly. For best success, air pruning requires a low-humidity environment, as high humidity doesn’t stop the roots from growing out of control.

The air pruning process prevents a plant’s roots from spiraling, twisting and becoming entangled in a pot-bound mess. This technique also allows plants to stay in their smaller containers longer before they require a bigger container. As a result, the branched root systems help to optimize the plant’s nourishment and growing potential, with larger, healthier plants to show for it.

Fabric container options offer the benefits of soil aeration, moisture control and air pruning. With these containers, roots stop when they hit the edge of the planter, stimulating lateral root branching and fibrous feeder roots that efficiently feed and hydrate your plants. These containers also reduce transplant shock in your plants.

Transplant Seedlings for Continued Growth

Just as a hermit crab upgrades its shell, so should you upgrade the containers for your young seedlings and indoor plants. When choosing the next container for your plants, make sure to research the preferred root depth for each type of plant. If you are growing vegetables indoors, like carrots, radishes, or even beans, a tall flowerpot or an eco-friendly planter can be reward you with many harvesting opportunities right in your kitchen or sunroom.

If you eventually plan to transplant any of your seedlings into an outside garden, peat pots can be a great option. Peat pots are fully biodegradable and naturally add organic matter to your garden right where you want it—near the roots of your crops. Simply plant the entire peat pot in the ground in your garden, taking care not to leave the edge of the pot above the surface, as this can rapidly dry out the soil surrounding your plants.

Container gardening cultivates so many benefits no matter what you’re growing. From beautiful ornamentals to flavorful fruits and vegetables, it’s rewarding to take a tiny seedling through the journey of becoming a vibrant, healthy, mature plant.

Start Seeds Indoors Using Egg Cartons

Gardening can feel like a very expensive activity sometimes, but starting seeds for spring planting doesn’t have to be.

You can use egg cartons as a seed-starting tray! Depending on the type of carton you have, you can even cut apart the individual sections and plant them, as the carton will biodegrade.

Be sure to poke small holes for drainage, and put the cartons on a tray or in a shallow pan to catch any residual water.

If you don’t have a windowsill handy, try using LED lights for growing seeds indoors!

This method of starting seeds works for both flowers and vegetables. I recommend planting some marigold seeds, as they are quick to germinate, have visually striking leaves, and once planted, are relatively hardy in the landscape. Plus, they make great companion plants in the garden because they deter some insect pests!

For everything you need to know about vegetable gardening in Mississippi, download The Garden Tabloid, or pick up a copy at the local Extension office.

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KC33 Feminised Cannabis Seeds | KC Brains Seeds

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how to germinate weed seeds in aerogarden

Top 7 Most Common Growing “Myths”

All you have to do is crumble 7 goldfish crackers per gallon of water into your nutrients every other feeding. The crackers use a wheat compound that’s impossible to obtain for non-commercial use, and this compound contains enzymes that make buds grow 40% larger!

Does that sound crazy? Good! Because it IS crazy!

One of the downsides to an invention as incredible as the internet is that crazy, nonsensical “tips” can easily be spread to thousands of new growers without any fact-checking. Unfortunately, many misleading tips just as crazy as this one not only exist, but are followed by inexperienced new growers!

That’s why today, we’re showing you the 7 myths we hear most commonly, and our verdict on their usefulness. Protect yourself against faux-info!

Myth #1 “You can tell the sex of your plant by looking at the seeds.”

Since only female cannabis plants produce buds, most growers are very interested in knowing the gender of their plants! It would be incredibly convenient if there was a way to look at cannabis seeds and be able to definitively identify the gender. As appealing as that idea is, there just isn’t a consistent way to visually identify the sex of cannabis seeds. Despite that fact, there is this persistent diagram that has been circulating the internet since at least 2008 and we get a few questions about it every year even though it’s simply not true.

This is Not an Effective Way to Identify Plant Gender! Growers Have Asked Us Regularly About This Misleading Diagram Since At Least 2008. Let’s Put This Myth to Rest!

The main idea behind the “technique” is to look at the seed and identify characteristics that show the seed is female. However, it’s important to note that actual cannabis seeds don’t have “depressions” in the same place as the seeds in the picture. In fact, the seeds in that picture aren’t even cannabis seeds!

Cannabis seeds don’t actually attach to the plant at the place shown in the diagram. Compare the illustrations to real cannabis seeds below.

Despite the fact that the seeds in the picture clearly are not cannabis seeds, we’ve still had growers vouch for this image. I talked to one grower who told me they use this “method” on a regular basis, and he claimed that it works better than random guessing once you get some experience. But unfortunately, even he said the method has up to 70% accuracy in the best-case scenario. Even if his story is true, those aren’t good odds! That means about 1/3 of “female” seeds end up being male. It also creates false negatives, which means that about 1/3 of the “male” seeds you’re throwing away are actually female…and those best-case-scenario numbers!

The feminized seeds in the picture below all grew into female plants, but not one of them fits the description of a “female” seed from the diagram.

Did you know? The “tiger stripes” on cannabis seeds are actually part of a dark brown coating that can be easily rubbed off with your fingers. Seeds are tan underneath.

Even if the technique from the diagram performed better than 50/50 guessing (it doesn’t really seem to), it’s definitely not a way to ensure that all plants you grow are going to be female. As far as we know, it’s currently impossible to determine plant gender purely from just looking at seeds.

The good news is, you can determine the sex of your plants by looking at their pre-flowers, which appear as early as 3 weeks from germination. They will have appeared on just about all plants by the time they’re 6 weeks old, even if the plant is still in the vegetative stage! You can also start with feminized seeds from a reputable breeder, which guarantees that 99.9% of plants end up being female.

Due to recent advances in available technology, you can also test young cannabis seedlings for gender (when they’re as young as 3 weeks old). You take a small piece of a leaf and send it in to a lab for identification. Learn How to Use Genetic Testing to Determine Gender of 3 Week Seedlings

Check out our full tutorial on male vs female cannabis plants:

Myth #2 “You should urinate on your cannabis plants to give them extra nutrients.”

This myth isn’t as popular as it used to be, but it’s just too good (sensational) to not mention.

Despite how bad this one sounds, urine does contain some nutrients plants can use, the most notable one being Nitrogen.

With that being said, don’t do this. There are many cheap, effective, and readily available means of giving your plants Nitrogen without involving urine.

A real cannabis nutrient system allows you to control exactly how much Nitrogen you’re giving your plant, so you give the right amount of nutrients at the right stage of life. More Nitrogen isn’t always better, especially in the flowering stage.

Additionally, the amount of Nitrogen contained in urine changes depending on several factors and is extremely difficult to measure (who would want to anyway?). Peeing on plants may give them nutrient burn or nitrogen toxicity, and sometimes may suffer from other nutrient deficiencies at the same time due to nutrient lock-out.

I don’t know about you, but nutrient burn due to urine seems much worse (psychologically) than the standard variety of nutrient burn!

Myth #3 “You can grow weed in a [Insert Garden Gimmick].”

Many growers write into to ask if growing weed in various garden gimmicks will actually work.

One common one is the Aerogarden. There are even growers who have written cannabis tutorials for it, and some swear by it as a cannabis growing method!

Weed can be successfully grown in an Aerogarden, that has already been established. But the reason the Aerogarden makes this list is due to the impracticality of growing weed in it.

An Aerogarden does save you from having to buy growing lights and a DWC (hydroponic) kit. But a better hydro kit would be cheaper, and the light provided isn’t strong enough to produce significant yields in the flowering stage. The lights are also way too close to the tops of plants, and the roots will overgrow the too-small reservoir in just a few weeks.

Another hydroponic option that’s good for some plants and herbs but bad for cannabis is NFT (Nutrient Film Technique). These work best for small plants like lettuce. With cannabis, the plants at the bottom of the system often get nutrient deficiencies because plant roots are constricted and only get nutrient water after it’s been used by several other plants. It’s also common for plants to fall over and not be able to support their own weight.

NFT Systems Don’t Work Well for Growing Cannabis

There are lots of better (and cheaper) ways to grow hydroponically that are much better suited to growing cannabis! Learn which methods are great for growing hydroponic cannabis

It’s a good idea to avoid most items that are intended for non-cannabis plants. For example, the Topsy Turvy is okay for tomatoes but causes upside-down cannabis plants to grow all the way around the outside to produce buds. Having to do that extra work may reduce overall yields compared to letting the plant grow out the top of a container.

The Topsy Turvy is designed for plants with hanging fruit, like tomatoes. It is not suitable for growing cannabis plants. Cannabis plants don’t hang. Instead, they will constantly try to grow upward against gravity.

If the garden gimmick is made for herbs or other non-cannabis plants, it often isn’t a great choice for cannabis! Before you invest your time or money in a particular product, take a moment to search Google or check online and see what results other growers are getting!

Myth #4 “Male plants should be harvested for THC.”

Let’s just start with this: do not keep male plants unless your goal is to have them pollinate your female plants. Pollination results in seedy buds, lowered yields, and in bad cases, the potency is also affected.

It’s very easy for pollen to circulate your grow room and get on your buds. If growing outdoors, your pollen might even float through the wind and pollinate another grower’s plants!

If you’re looking to make seeds at home, consider skipping male plants and check out our article on making your own feminized seeds using two female marijuana plants!

But if you have just one plant, and if it turns out being male, you may want to extract any THC contained inside if you’re not looking to collect its pollen.

So, do male plants actually contain any THC?

The answer is that some male cannabis plants do produce some THC, albeit in much smaller amounts than female plants.

Male plants don’t grow THC-filled buds, and simply smoking the pollen sacs or leaves won’t have much effect because overall THC levels are low. Although there may be some THC in the plant tissue, the main way to get THC from a male plant is to extract trichomes that grow on the leaves and sides of pollen sacs.

Male plants typically don’t produce many (if any) trichomes, and contain only small amounts of THC.

Unfortunately, although there are some exceptions with certain strains, most male plants don’t produce a large number of trichomes. This makes it extremely difficult to harvest significant amounts of THC.

I highly recommend hobbyist growers who are just looking for bud start with feminized seeds so they don’t have to deal with male plants!

Myth #5 “More Nutrients = Faster Growth”

Cannabis plants need much higher amounts of nutrients than typical houseplants. If they don’t get enough nutrients, they will appear pale and grow slowly, often with deficiencies. Undernourished plants won’t produce a whole lot of bud. It can seem like more nutrients is always better, but unfortunately, it can be easy to go overboard.

The main sign of using too many nutrients is nutrient burn. I’ve heard several growers suggest that you should use as many nutrients as your plant can possibly take, right up until it gets nutrient burn, and to stick to that level.

I personally recommend avoiding nutrient burn if possible. In my experience, plants that are “pushed to the limit” with nutrients don’t seem to grow faster than plants given a standard amount of nutrients.

You want your plant to be green and healthy, but dark green leaves and burnt tips are signs your plant is getting more nutrients than it can use.

Giving the plant time with lower levels of nutrients can help use up all the extra nutrients in the leaves, and the color will slowly return to normal (though burnt tips never recover).

In the later part of the flowering stage, too-high levels of nutrients may add a ‘chemically’ taste to your buds, so it’s especially important to be careful. Nutrient toxicities are most common with mineral (non-organic) sources of nutrients because they are quickly absorbed by the roots regardless of whether the plant needs more.

Flushing during the last week or two is recommended to help improve the taste and smell. Using a flushing agent (sometimes called “Clearing” or “Salt Leaching” solutions) can also help the flushing process, though they can’t perform miracles.

An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure! Even Flushing Agents Can Only Do So Much. Don’t Over-Feed Your Plants During the Flowering Stage!

Myth #6 “More Nutrients = Faster Growth”

Many of us have grown up seeing Miracle-Gro being used in our homes, so we know that it works for ‘regular houseplants’. Cannabis is just a tough weed, so Miracle-Gro should be great for it, right?

The issue with the standard Miracle-Gro nutrient formula is that it’s one formula for the entirety of the plant’s life cycle. Even if Miracle-Gro soil is okay for the beginning of your plant’s life, it may not be as good in the flowering stage. The ratio of nutrients your plants need changes drastically between seedling and full flower, and marijuana needs a nutrient system to accommodate for those changing nutrient needs.

The original soil blend by Miracle-Gro has poor drainage and its slow-release Nitrogen can harm your cannabis plants and reduce yields in the flowering stage.

Many growers find it has poor drainage and water-holding capability compared to better soil or coco coir. But the main problem is that the standard Miracle-Gro soil contains “time-released” nutrients which contain high levels of Nitrogen. As a result, you may notice that your leaves in the flowering stage unexpectedly get nutrient burn or nitrogen toxicities out of nowhere, and can lead to an unpleasant or chemical taste in your buds. The low levels of Potassium and Phosphorus means your buds may not grow as big as they could have.

Use Good Soil for the Healthiest Cannabis Plants!

Myth #7 “Adding juice/food to plants before harvest increases taste/potency/flavor.”

Here’s a brief list of things people have been told to feed their cannabis to improve its taste/flavor/potency:

  • Orange Juice
  • Apple Juice
  • Urine (Urine? Again?)
  • Molasses diluted with water
  • Sugar-water
  • Egg whites diluted with water
  • Vanilla Extract
  • Kool-Aid powder
  • My tears

The only one of these that actually has any tested effect is…molasses! And even molasses is only used in tiny amounts right before flowering.

People love being able to do something productive for their plants while they’re growing and what’s better than giving them a treat like you’d give a pet?

Frustratingly, the best thing you can do during those times is to check on your plants and be patient if they’re doing fine. Adding any of the things listed above – except molasses – can cause your plant harm.

However, there are plenty of steps a grower can take to improve the taste/smell, density, number of trichomes and yields of their home-grown cannabis buds.

Bonus Myths:

Here are a few other myths we’ve heard that aren’t as fun and/or popular, but we thought were worth pointing out:

  1. Planting two seeds in the same hole makes a new strain. This one isn’t insanely popular, but it made me laugh so hard I had to include it! I guess the logic is that you have a mommy seed and a daddy seed and they make a new mixed plant? It’s definitely a myth and it might be my new favorite! No, it’s definitely my new favorite!
  2. Defoliation is Bad! These days, it’s pretty much common knowledge amongst growers that defoliation is a great tool for increasing yields, lowering humidity, and halting the “flowering stretch”. However, when Nebula and I were first starting out, we got a lot of flack (and quite a few angry emails) about how defoliation doesn’t work. Many people used the argument that “a cannabis plant’s leaves are like solar panels”, so you shouldn’t remove them.

It’s helpful to remember that cannabis plants didn’t evolve to grow indoors, so we make adjustments to accommodate their natural behavior. For example, cannabis plants grow in a Christmas-tree shape in nature, so we top them to make them have a falt canopy when growing indoors. Similarly, defoliation helps to deal with the fact that a healthy cannabis plant simply grows more foliage than needed for an indoor environment such as a grow tent.

The yellow spots on the top bud are the result of yellow sugar leaves that are still somewhat visible after the bud was trimmed. Luckily, this is mostly a cosmetic problem, and the buds will still be a good smoke! The bud below had green sugar leaves until harvest.

  1. “The drying and curing process does not have a huge effect on bud quality.” Not only is the dry/cure process important, but it may also account for up to 50% of your final bud quality by improving smell, taste, and potency. Buds that are improperly dried and cured may cause headaches, cause “speedy” effects, smell like hay or have no smell and have reduced potency. Always dry and cure your buds!
  2. “You should use seeds from hermaphrodite plants.” While hermaphrodite plants can produce self-pollinated seeds, these seeds are likely to end up being hermies just like their parent, which means you’ll often end up with seeded buds once again. That being said, sometimes it’s your only choice, and with self-pollinated seeds you know that all the seeds will end up (mostly) female. Learn more about feminized seeds and hermies.
  3. Blowing cannabis smoke at plants helps them to grow faster. I would love to live in a world where this is the case, but in our world, it’s actually worse for them. Smoke is not good for your plants, but it won’t immediately kill them, either.
  4. Crushed up birth control pills will force a plant to be female. If you’ve never heard this, it probably sounds crazy! I’m not sure how this myth got started, but it’s just plain not true. Adding crushed up birth control pills to your plant’s water isn’t going to make your cannabis plant female.
  5. You can grow huge plants indoors with barely any electricity. When it comes to growing cannabis, if something seems too good to be true, it probably is. Whenever you read outrageous claims like “this LED grow light only uses 45W of electricity but produces the same yields as a 600W HID grow light,” you should be cautious. Cannabis plants need a lot of light to produce big yields and so far, there are not a lot of ways to get around that fact. Whether you’re using LED grow lights, HPS or LEC grow lights (the three most efficient types of grow lights for cannabis), your yields are directly proportional to the amount of electricity you put in. How much yields should you expect from different types of grow light?
  6. Cannabis plants grow like a weed, so just stick seeds in dirt. Sure, you can stick some seeds in the ground and wait to see what happens. But if you care about getting sticky, potent bud, you need to care for your plants and ensure they produce to their best. Think of a gardener – they can throw a bunch of seeds in their garden and see how things turn out, but serious gardeners don’t do that. By giving plants exactly what’s needed at the right time, yields and quality get increased 100x. Unless you just happen to live in an area with a perfect environment, perfect weather, and perfect soil, you will greatly improve your results by learning the basics of growing cannabis, and taking time to ensure plants get what they need to produce the best yields possible. That being said, this does not mean that growing cannabis is hard.

13 Leaf Points on this Cannabis Leaf, Though Most Leaves on the Plant Had 7 or 9 Points

This plant mutation caused each leaf to only grow a single point from when the plant was a seedling. This makes cannabis look like a completely different plant! This isn’t a re-vegging plant, this is how this plant naturally grew from seed to harvest.

If you notice your leaves (which were growing normally) suddenly start growing with a weird number leaf points partway through the flowering stage, that’s a problem. It usually means your plant is re-vegging.

Re-Vegging Plant – Leaves Start Growing Single Points in the Flowering Stage. Not Good!

Got any awesome myths that we missed? Let us know by replying to our weekly newsletter!

Myth: “Bagseed” is a great choice for beginners

“Bagseed” is a term for random cannabis seeds that you find, for example, in bud you purchase. Some growers get lucky growing bagseed and produce great plants, but a lot of growers will be disappointed with their results from growing bagseed. Especially for beginners, bagseed comes with some downsides what will make things tougher for your first grow.

Here’s what you need to keep in mind when growing with bagseed…

  • You’ll have no idea how the plant will grow – Will your plant grow short or tall? Fast or slow? High or Low THC? How long will you have to wait before harvest?
  • More likely to produce hermies – Cannabis plants grown properly will not produce buds that contain seeds – that means bagseed is always a mistake on the part of the grower. Often this means that the mother plant was a hermaphrodite, and as you learned earlier, that means your seeds are much more likely to produce hermaphrodite plants – plants that grow both male and female parts – so you’re much more likely to end up with seedy buds and lower yields
  • You don’t know which strain you’re growing – Unless you get genetics directly from the breeder, you can never be sure exactly which strain you’re growing, so you won’t know what to expect
  • You don’t know which strain you’re growing part 2 – Oftentimes the buds produced from bagseed end up nothing like the buds they were found in – this is because the strain has not been stabilized by a breeder to make sure that all seeds produce the same results.
  • Runts and stunted growth – This is the problem I’ve seen some growers have when trying to grow bagseed. I’ve seen seeds that just don’t sprout, stunted plants and sad, spindly buds. Professional cannabis breeders will nurture mother plants and store seeds properly so you get great germination rates. Since bagseed is always produced by mistake, it is highly unlikely the grower took steps to make sure the seeds end up being good to grow.

Here’s one of my favorite plants; it was a very fun and rewarding grow!

This plant is about 1.5 months into flowering, with about a month left to go. This strain is stabilized and all seeds consistently grow bushy plants that are easy to train. The potent buds have won several awards and cannabis cups around the world.

Compare that to a Bagseed plant…

(That being said, some bagseed plants come out great!)

Learn about trusted online sources for buying cannabis seeds here:

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Here’s Everything You Need To Know About Owning An Aerogarden

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If you’ve recently come into possession of an Aerogarden, chances are you’re excited but also potentially a little overwhelmed.

Aerogardens make growing herbs, greens, flowers, and vegetables incredibly easy (dare I say. foolproof?!), but if you don’t know the basics of this wonder garden, it can almost feel a little too easy.

So, to put your mind at ease, here’s everything you need to know about using your brand new Aerogarden:

1. When the light on your Aerogarden blinks, it means it’s time to water or feed your plants.

Once you’ve done the required watering or feeding, press the button. It will start blinking again the next time your plants need some attention. If the light isn’t blinking, your plants are content!

2. Plants in an AeroGarden typically grow around five times faster than they would if they were planted in a regular garden.

For example, in regular soil it takes between four and five weeks for a basil seed to germinate and grow “true leaves” (aka usable adult leaves that come after the baby “seed leaves”). Herbs grown from an Aerogarden seed pot kit generally take around 35–40 days to become fully grown. And what about tomatoes, you ask? Well, in the Aerogarden you can expect to be harvesting edible fruits after 12–14 weeks. (If your tomato seeds were planted in an outdoor garden, you’d be waiting more than six months.)

3. And while it depends on the plant, most seeds will sprout in anywhere between 3–14 days.

Watching your greens grow from seeds is almost as fun as eating them.

4. Salad greens can be fully grown in just 28-35 days in an Aerogarden.

Did you ever think you’d literally grow your own salad?! I definitely didn’t.

5. If you’re interested in growing vegetables in your Aerogarden, tomatoes and peppers are two of the ideal ones to start with.

Just get the veggie seed kits and grow away.

Get a cherry tomato kit from Amazon for $14.44.

6. When choosing plants to grow in your Aerogarden, consider how much growing space your model has.

The Goodful Aerogarden, for example, has 12″ of growing space, so any plant that needs to grow beyond that height won’t be suitable. For example, kale is too large a plant to grow in an Aerogarden, as are fruits that grow on shrubs or trees, like lemons and raspberries. Vegetables like carrots and potatoes also won’t work as they need space to root and grow.

7. You can grow strawberries in some Aerogardens (. ), you just have to add a specially designed grow bowl.

If you have an AeroGarden Ultra, Bounty, or Bounty Elite garden, you can add this bowl, along with pre-packaged strawberry seed kits, to grow these tiny sweet fruits from the comfort of your own home. (Sadly, you can’t grow strawberries in the Goodful Aerogarden.)

8. If you want to grow something that isn’t sold in a pre-packaged seed pod, grab a grow anything kit.

You can grow almost anything in an Aerogarden: snap peas, cucumbers, bell peppers, red chiles, and yes — if you were wondering — you can definitely grow weed.

Get a grow anything kit from Amazon for $9.39.

9. You can also grow flowers in your Aerogarden.

Lavender, petunia, and snapdragons are all available in seed pod kits. If you want to grow another species of flower grab a Grow Anything kit and plant away. The only flowers that won’t work in the Aerogarden are those that grow especially tall like sunflowers, or those that grow in large bushes, like roses.

Get a petunia kit from Amazon for $19.95.

10. In most areas, tap water is fine for watering your plants. However, if you’re concerned about water quality, keep an eye out for poor growth and yellowing or brown leaves.

Rain, well, and spring water is not recommended for watering your plants due to varying levels of minerals. If you have especially hard water in your area (this is more common in south and southwest of the US), Aerogarden’s liquid nutrients can help condition it, making it fine for your seeds and plants.

11. Avoid putting different sized plants next to each other, as the taller ones will shade the smaller ones from the light.

Basically, don’t plant tomatoes next to a small herb, like mint. If you do, that mint just isn’t going to thrive.

12. And remember to prune your plants, so they stay healthy and don’t block light to slower growing plants.

Avoiding pruning is one of the biggest mistakes you can make as a dedicated Aerogarden owner, so don’t be afraid to give your leafy children regular haircuts. When pruning, use scissors or gardening shears to cut any overgrown stems or flowers from your plant, as well as any dead leaves.

When pruning flowers, cut off any leaf or stem that’s shading lower sections of the plant. Cut stems just above a set of leaves, and always leave at least one-third of the plant as is. When pruning herbs, pay the most attention to fast-growing plants like basil, mint, and dill, as they will require the most trims. Pruning will encourage new growth from your plants and help neighboring plants thrive.

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Blue Dream Auto Feminised Seeds

Blue Dream Auto is the auto-flowering version of the Californian cannabis strain Blue Dream. It is 75% sativa in genetic composition and develops big yields of long buds with an enticing aroma, great taste, and “up” high.

How Blue Dream Auto Grows

Blue Dream Auto is a bushy, disease-resistant plant growing to a height of approximately 110 cm. tall, which can be grown indoors and outdoors. Indoor yields can be as high as 300 gr/plant in a total life-cyclle from germination right through to harvest of between 9 – 11 weeks. It is unlikely to be ready to harvest in northern latitudes until sometime in October, thus precluding cultivation in cool regions where the early autumnal weather is usually wet and cool.

It is relatively easy to grow and is quite a thirsty plant, although one which does not take kindly to over-feeding. FastBuds recommend giving no more than a quarter of the recommended dosage of plant food. This strain reacts well to lower branch pruning (so-called lolli-popping) as well as pinching the top out to restrict height where this might be an issue.

Blue Dream Auto Taste, Smell, and Effect

The aroma is very firmly, mouth-wateringly citrus-influenced, with tastes of tart and sweet with notes of pine and cedar. THC production is very high (in excess of 20%) with medium levels of CBD. The effect is initially of a cerebrally intense, uplifting effect which evolves, mellowing out to a more relaxed physical state. It would be the perfect afternoon smoke.

Therapeutically BLue Dream’matic is recommended for treating the symptoms of Glaucoma, Nausea, Epilepsy, Multiple Sclerosis, Back pain, PMS, Arthritis, Herpes, Rheumatism, Sickle Cell, Expectorant, Stress, Migraines, AIDS, Tumours and Asthma.

Dark blue dream seeds

Whether you’re a cannabis connoisseur or a total newbie, you’ve probably heard of the strain Blue Dream before. Originating in the West Coast in the early 2000s, Blue Dream has quickly become one of the most popular cannabis strains in North America.

Beloved for its euphoric high, Blue Dream has a distinctive “woodsy” smell and a sweet flavor profile. Although we don’t know much about Blue Dream’s origins, one thing’s for sure: this strain is here to stay.

Let’s take a closer look at the hubbub surrounding Blue Dream. Below, we’ll explore Blue Dream’s many features and explain the basics everyone should know before growing this dreamy strain at home.

Blue Dream Feminized Seeds General Info

Blue Dream is officially classified as a sativa-heavy cannabis hybrid. Usually, the sativa to indica percentages are set at 60:40 or 70:30, which helps give Blue Dream its unique euphoric, non-dulling effects.

We don’t know for sure, but most cannabis lovers believe the Blue Dream strain originated somewhere around Santa Cruz, CA. One thing we do know, however, is that Blue Dream grows well under Santa Cruz County’s weather conditions.

Before we get into more details on Blue Dream, however, we should talk a little bit about this strain’s genetics.

Blue Dream’s Genetic Legacy

Blue Dream’s momma and poppa are the indica-dominant Blueberry and the sativa-dominant Haze. Both of these strains are readily available in cannabis shops, and many people use them on their own for a wide variety of medical conditions.

Famed cannabis cultivator Daniel John Short (aka D. J. Short) is responsible for creating Blueberry way back in the days of disco. Recently, this strain was awarded the prestigious Cannabis Cup in the Best Indica category and it remains a favorite of cannabis users who prefer soothing indica plants. This high THC strain has an extremely fruity aroma and taste. much like blueberries (duh). Medicinally, people have used Blueberry to help them with issues like chronic pain and anxiety.

The sativa-heavy Haze strain also has a long history in the cannabis industry, dating back at least to the 60s. Like Blue Dream, most cannabis historians believe Haze was first developed in or around Santa Cruz County. On its own, Haze tends to have an extremely energizing effect on users. As for taste, Haze users say this strain is very woodsy with just a bit of a kick.

Blue Dream’s Appearance And Smell

No, Blue Dream doesn’t look like a blueberry…because that would just make too much sense, right? When you get this highly coveted cannabis in your claws you’ll notice this weed has some serious froth going on. Yeah, those THC trichomes are bursting out of this green gloriousness like a teen’s acne-laden face. You might also notice a few orange and brown streaks around Blue Dream that compliment the plant’s overall deep green color.

But even more than Blue Dream’s fine frothy appearance, this strain will really do a number on your nostrils. If you used to pick blueberries when you were a kid, then get ready for your Proustian moment ! In addition to that strong blueberry aroma, you might also notice a complex mix of floral, woodsy, and citrusy notes.

Blue Dream’s Effects On The Body

So, what should you expect when you take a hit of Blue Dream? Well, the one word that almost every Blue Dream smoker uses is “euphoric.” But what does that mean?

Let’s return to Blue Dream’s qualities for a second to help clarify its effects on the body. It’s important to note that Blue Dream is THC-heavy. When you get those nugs in your hand, you’ll notice huge THC trichomes all over the place. It’s not uncommon for Blue Dream to have a THC content of about 25 percent and only about 1 percent of CBD. So, yeah, this strain is going to get you pretty high.

The quality of Blue Dream ‘s high, however, is quite interesting. The energizing qualities provided by Haze are slightly subdued by the Blueberry strain. This makes Blue Dream superb for people who need help with mental clarity and focus (e.g. ADD sufferers). Indeed, many artists find that Blue Dream’s effects help them overcome creative blocks.

Medicinally, Blue Dream has been used effectively for the following conditions:

• Fibromyalgia and/or general fatigue

Blue Dream is not the best strain for people who want to use medical marijuana as a part of their cancer treatment protocol or for sleep issues like insomnia. The most common side effect of using Blue Dream is dry mouth.

Is It Difficult To Grow Blue Dream?

Not only is Blue Dream lovely to smoke, it’s also a dream to grow at home. If you’re a newbie to the cannabis-growing world, then Blue Dream is a superb place to start.

Usually it takes about 9 to 10 weeks for Blue Dream to grow into a mature, high-yielding plant—provided it’s in good quality soil . When we say high yielding, we’re talking about 650 grams per m2 indoors and up to 900 grams per m2 outdoors.

Although you could use a hydrotropic system to grow Blue Dream, you’ll get the most out of this strain if you plant it in high-quality, nutrient-dense soil. Organic soil will already have countless beneficial microorganisms (and in some cases nutrient-rich amendments) that will help naturally facilitate nutrient absorption.

If you’re growing indoors, expect this plant to grow to a height of about 150 – 200 cm. Outdoors, Blue Dream could grow as tall as 300 cm. Sativa plants naturally grow high, but Blue Dream is prone to getting weighed down due to the weightier indica buds. For this reason, it’s important to regularly prune your plant and use a trellis to support its growth.

Not only is Blue Dream high yielding, it’s also extremely forgiving. You could make a few mistakes along the way and still end up with a great plant. Although this plant’s preferred temps are between 65°F and 85°F, Blue Dream is quite hardy and can handle a few cold nights.

Oh yeah, and it’s best to use your feminized Blue Moon seeds with either SOG or SCROG methods.

What To Look For In Blue Dream Seeds?

The best way to get the most bang for your buck cultivating Blue Dream is to invest in the best-quality feminized seeds right off the bat. Using pre-sexed seeds will save you a ton of aggravation in the growing process and provide you with the highest cannabinoid-concentrated Blue Dream plant.

As with any other strain, give your Blue Dream seeds a good inspection before you decide to purchase them. Healthy seeds should look dark with a few white or grey streaks. As you press these seeds in your fingers, they should feel firm but not brittle. Please don’t buy Blue Dream seeds that are white or green and/or feel squishy because these are way too young to be planted in soil.

Grow Some Beautiful Blue Dream Of Your Own!

So, if you’re looking for a classic cannabis strain with a fruity flavor and an energizing-yet-mellow psychological effect, Blue Dream is the strain for you. Thankfully for home growers, Blue Dream is one of the easiest strains to grow both indoors and outdoors. Check out our catalogue below and buy your Blue Dream feminized seeds today!

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How to Get Rid of Wild Violets in Your Lawn

Wild violets (Viola papilionacea, Viola sororia, Viola pubescens, and other species) are a close relative of violas, pansies, and other garden flowers. While some people view this plant as a fine wildflower, others regard it as a stubborn perennial lawn weed. Wild violets can be removed by hand, especially if you regularly inspect your lawn to control the plant before it spreads. But sometimes this weed calls for the use of chemical herbicides for complete eradication.

Identifying Wild Violets

Wild violets are easily recognized by their low growth habit; waxy, heart-shaped leaves; and small lavender, white, or yellow flowers. The plants are commonly around 4 to 6 inches high, though they can grow taller in the right conditions.

These are perennial plants that spread both by rhizomes and by seeds. Lawns that are not well maintained are often colonized by spreads of violets. Shady areas of a lawn are especially susceptible to a wild violet takeover. Very few homeowners in the eastern or midwestern U.S. have not seen wild violets in their lawns at some point. They grow in USDA hardiness zones 3 to 9.

When to Get Rid of Wild Violets

Using herbicide to eradicate wild violets is best undertaken in the fall. At this time, the herbicide will be transported down to the taproot as the plant stores nutrients for winter. Thus, you have a good chance of the herbicide killing the plant down to ground level with a fall application. If you use herbicide in the spring or summer, it might only temporarily kill the surface leaves, allowing the plant to rebound.

Nebraska: Identifying Fall-Emerging Weeds – Video

As the 2020 corn and soybean harvest begins to wind down, we would like to encourage growers to take a proactive approach to managing winter annual weeds prior to the onset of winter. Winter annual weeds typically emerge in late summer and fall, survive throughout the winter, and produce seeds during late spring or early summer the following year. Fall control can prevent potential yield reductions associated with delaying removal until corn or soybean planting the following year.

With recent precipitation, many winter weeds are actively emerging. These weeds require undisturbed soils from fall through early summer of the following year to complete their life cycle, and no-till soil management favors this environment.

The most common winter weeds in Nebraska are: henbit, marestail, field pennycress, downy brome, dandelion, shepherd’s-purse, tansy mustard, and prickly lettuce. In addition, little barley, evening primrose, and field pansy have been observed in many fields. The first step in effective weed management is being able to accurately identify the weeds.

UNL Weed Management Scientist Amit Jhala, explains why fall control of winter annuals is important in this Oct. 24, 2014 Market Journal interview.


Henbit is a winter annual (sometimes biennial) herb found in cultivated areas, field, roadsides, or lawns.

Flowering period: March-May

Distinguishing features: The plant is 4 to 12 inches tall having squared green-stem (often becoming purplish in later stage) and reddish purple to pink flowers. The leaves are opposite, clasping the stem in the top portion and leaf-margins are crenate and lobed. The whole plant is sparsely covered with fine hairs. Stem branches frequently root from the nodes. The foliage and stems of henbit are aromatic.

Seedling characteristics: It has a 3-12 mm long, oval-shaped cotyledon with a smooth surface. The petiole is green or purplish and has spreading hair.


Marestail, also known as horseweed, is an annual weed that has a winter or summer annual life cycle. They usually germinate in fall but can germinate in mid-summer when conditions are favorable. Plenty of marestail can be found in no-till fields as well as in cultivated areas, pastures, and roadsides.

Marestail contains volatile oils, tannic acid, and gallic acid that may cause skin and mucosal irritation in humans and livestock. Glyphosate-resistant marestail has been confirmed in Nebraska. This is a serious issue and growers should be on the lookout for possible occurrences this fall.

Flowering period: June-September

Distinguishing features: This is an erect herb that has coarsely hirsute stem and leaf surfaces and can be 1.5 to 6 feet tall. It tends to be unbranched unless the plant has been damaged by herbicides or mowing, but it may have branching at inflorescence. Leaves are alternate and crowded on the stem. Flowers are white to pink (ray florets) with yellow centers (disk florets).

After fall germination it forms a rosette-like structure. (The larger the rosette is in the fall, the greater its chances of surviving through winter.) Depending on growing conditions, the survival rate of fall-emerged marestail is 14%-84% of total germinated weeds.

Seedling characteristics: Seedlings are also covered by coarse hairs. The margins of the first leaves of rosette are mostly entire or round, but subsequent leaves might be apically projected and toothed.

Field Pennycress

Field pennycress is a winter annual that can be found in fields, pastures, roadsides, and in disturbed lands. Field pennycress seeds contain a chemical (allyl isothiocyanate) that causes gastric distress in livestock. When the seeds are consumed, cows produce milk with a bitter garlic odor and flavor.

Flowering period: April- June

Distinguishing features: The stem is erect, branched or simple, and 1 to 2.6 feet tall. Leaves are alternate and clasping the stem. It forms a basal rosette with the leaves. Lower leaves have entire or coarsely toothed margins with blunt tips, while upper leaves have coarsely toothed margins with a projected leaf tip. Fruits are flat, circular, or rounded-oblong. They are notched at the tip, separating into two valves.

Seedling characteristics: Cotyledons are bluish-green and long-stalked. They are ovate-shaped with a prominent mid-vein and slightly toothed margin.

Downy Brome

Downy brome is a winter annual grass that can be found in cultivated areas, fields, pastures, roadsides, and waste sites. Long awns of downy brome may injure grazing animals and cause tetanus.

Flowering period: Late April- May

Distinguishing features: Plants are 0.3 to 2 feet tall. Leaf sheaths, leaf blades, and nodes are covered with soft hairs. Usually the leaves twist clockwise. It has a membranous (1-3 mm long) structure at the base of the leaf where the leaf blade and leaf sheath (i.e. ligule) meet. Long awned spikelets form panicles (inflorescence) that are dense, soft and either drooping or nodding.

Seedling characteristics: Seedlings are light green with soft hairs on the leaf sheath and blades. Leaves show clockwise twisting.


Dandelion is an annual or perennial weed invasive in turf, flower gardens, forage, and no-till fields. It grows from seeds during fall.

Flowering period: April-October

Distinguishing features: The erect plants are 2 to 20 inches high and have a basal rosette crowded by deeply notched leaves. Stems and leaves contain milky sap. The bright yellow dandelion flower is 1 to 2 inches wide. Each flower head contains hundreds of ray florets. Later the flower heads turn into white globular seed head. Each seed has a white parachute that facilitates travel on the wind.

Seedling characteristics: It has a rosette that’s 2 to 6 inches long with basal leaves formed above the central root system.


Shepherd’s-purse is a winter annual (rarely biennial) mostly found in cultivated areas, fields, lawns, gardens and roadsides. The seeds of shepherd’s purse need cold temperatures to break dormancy and germinate when the soil temperature goes below 60°F.

Flowering period: March- November

Distinguishing features: The leaves are alternate, forming a basal rosette. They are pinnately lobed and smaller apically. The flower stalks (called raceme) are unbranched to slightly branched. The plant will be 6 to 18 inches tall and bear white flowers. The fruits of shepherd’s purse are triangular- or heart-shaped.

Seedling characteristics: Cotyledons are round or spatulate in shape and may be slightly indented at the tip.


Tansymustard is a winter annual that can be found in rangeland, roadsides, and fields. It contains toxic levels of nitrate and is harmful for cattle to consume.

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tortoise weed seeds

Seed Mix: Broadleaf Testudo Mix

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A blend of 24 broadleaf plants and clovers. This is a great mix for the Mediterranean tortoises (Russians, Greeks, Hermanns, etc) or those species that just don’t care for grasses. This mix has no grasses in it, and does well in warmer climates without a huge amount of irrigation (similar to the conditions most Testudo experience in the wild).

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dragon lady seeds

Dragon Lady seeds

Buy Dragon Lady seeds online with Seedsbay. Here you will find detailed information on the Dragon Lady cannabis seeds, from specifications and reviews to flavors and effects. We have listed every seedshop where you can buy Dragon Lady seeds along their offers. Compare prices on Dragon Lady seeds and get the best deal for yourself!

Unfortunatly, there are no offers available to buy Dragon Lady seeds. Do you know a seedshop selling Dragon Lady seeds? Send us a message and we will add the offer as soon as possible.

Unfortunatly, there are no offers available to buy Dragon Lady seeds. Do you know a seedshop selling Dragon Lady seeds? Send us a message and we will add the offer as soon as possible.

Dragon Lady specifications

Read the Dragon Lady seed specifications in the table below. The values may vary between the different seedbanks where you can buy Dragon Lady seeds.

Variety 20% Indica and 80% Sativa
THC level 16%
CBD Level Low

About Dragon Lady seeds

Dragon Lady is a dominant sativa strain and has an average level of 16 percent THC. This seeds will grow a plant with low CBD levels. Dragon Lady has the abbreviation Dla where the plant is 80 percent sativa and 20 percent indica. Dragon Lady will grow into a fine marijuana plant with a great yield. Growing Dragon Lady seeds is fun and with the right info anyone can cultivate this cannabis plant, the Dragon Lady has an average flowering time.

Ordering your Dragon Lady seeds online is not possible, as soon as we know a shop which are selling Dragon Lady seeds, we will post it here.

Dragon Lady reviews

Read what other people has to say about Dragon Lady seeds.

Most helpfull

Moses from Sint Maarten

I had a TBI and have PTSD and take meds for all of the things it is best used for. It works for me..

Most recent

Emery Spears from Saint Kitts and Nevis

This was a pleasure to try. Light earthy taste, instant high, & good for creatives. I smoked it out of raw paper wraps and a card paper filter.

All About Dragon Lady Weed Strain

Dragon Lady is a 100% Indica cannabis that has a bit of mystery in its creation history. It’s a child strain of two infamous parents Blue Dragon and Flo. The breeder remains unknown. The THC level ranges from 8% to 11%, making these buds a great choice for beginners. And as an addition, despite the obvious dominance, the Sativa effect is very light here. Therefore, users prefer to consume it during the daytime.

Many people say the taste is sweet enough, even sugary, yet fresh with an earthy aftertaste. In its turn, the aroma is more plant and spicy with hints of herbs and musk.

Most Common Effects of the Strain

According to its reviews, regardless of the chemical composition, the effects and properties of this strain are quite similar. In most cases, this is a bright burst of euphoria and high that lasts for a long time. This cannabis can also have the following effects on smoker:

  • Mood Boost
  • Relaxation
  • Euphoria
  • Uplifting
  • Sleepiness

There are also negative side effects, but they are minor. Dry mouth and dry eyes are most common, and other side effects are very unlikely.

Despite its slightly below average THC levels, this cannabis can cope with various ailments and mental states. Experienced users even note the painkiller properties of this strain. Dragon Lady is suitable for relieving:

  • Depression
  • Insomnia
  • Mood Swings
  • Chronic Pain
  • Headaches

Growing Tips for Dragon Lady Cannabis

If you can find seeds on the internet, consider yourself a very lucky person. Breeders do not provide seeds, but you can find them on other reseller websites. Growers claim that the difficulty of growing is medium, so this strain is suitable for both experienced and novice hemp gardeners. There is no information about the yield of the plant, but you will be able to find out for yourself during flowering, which is 50-70 days.

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truffle cake seeds

Truffle Cake

Here you can find all info about Truffle Cake from In House Genetics. If you are searching for information about Truffle Cake from In House Genetics, check out our Basic Infos or Lineage / Genealogy for this cannabis variety here at this page and follow the links to get even more information. If you have any personal experiences with growing or consuming this cannabis variety, please use the upload links to add them to the database!

Basic / Breeders Info

Truffle Cake is an indica/sativa variety from In House Genetics and can be cultivated indoors (where the plants will need a flowering time of ±70 days ), outdoors and in the greenhouse. In House Genetics’ Truffle Cake is a THC dominant variety and is/was never available as feminized seeds.

In House Genetics’ Truffle Cake Description

In House Genetics – Truffle Cake (GOLD PACK): The genetics are derived from Fresh Coast Seed Company’s Gorilla Butter F2 "White Truffle Cut" x Pancakes (London Pound Cake #75 X Kush Mints #11).

"White Truffle Cut" = Gorilla Butter F2

Truffle Cake Lineage / Genealogy

  • Truffle Cake »»» Gorilla Butter F2 White Truffle Cut x Pancakes probably White Truffle Cut F2
      x Gorilla Butter

      • »»» Gorilla Glue #4 x Peanut Butter Breath OGKB pheno #4

          • »»» x Chocolate Diesel probably x Chem Sister

              • »»» Sour Diesel x Sour Bubble probably
                • »»» Original Diesel x DNL
                  • »»» Chemdawg x x SensiNL

                        • »»» Skunk #1 x Afghanistan
                              • »»» Afghanistan x Mexico x Colombia »»» Indica »»» Sativa »»» Sativa
                                • »»» NL #1 x NL #2 x NL #5 IBL
                                    »»» Indica
                                      Probably »»» Indica
                                      »»» Mostly Indica
                                      »»» Indica
                                    • »»» x Northern Lights x Hawaiian
                                            (specified above)
                                            »»» Indica/Sativa Hybrid
                                          • »»» BOGBubble Sour Bubble Clone x BX3 Sour Bubble Clone x BOGBubble
                                              Sour Bubble Clone

                                                • »»» Bubblegum x Bubble Gum
                                                      »»» Mostly Indica
                                                      (specified above)
                                                      (specified above)
                                                        a (specified above)
                                                      • »»» Sour Diesel x Chocolate Trip Katsus F1- Cut (specified above) Katsus F1- Cut
                                                        • »»» x x Chocolate Thai
                                                            »»» Indica
                                                              »»» Sativa
                                                              (specified above)
                                                              »»» Indica
                                                            • »»» DoSiDos x Mendo Breath F2 Studly Spewright
                                                              • »»» OGKB x Face/Off OG BX1 Probably
                                                                  selected pheno

                                                                  • »»» F1 Durban x OG Kush South Florida S1
                                                                      • »»» Durban Poison x Chemdawg Mendocino IBL

                                                                            KwaZulu-Natal »»» Sativa
                                                                          • »»» Chemdawg x Probably x Hindu Kush, Pakistan
                                                                              »»» Sativa
                                                                              »»» Indica
                                                                            • »»» x Face-Off OG Kush #32 x Face-Off OG Kush
                                                                                #32 »»» Unknown Strain
                                                                                  Selfed (specified above)
                                                                                • »»» Mendo Breath F1 #2 x Mendo Breath F1 #2
                                                                                  • »»» Cherry Pie Kush OGKB x Mendo Montage OGKB (specified above)
                                                                                    • »»» Mendo Purps x Crystal Locomotive F1
                                                                                        »»» Mostly Indica
                                                                                      • »»» TrainWreck x 98 Aloha WW
                                                                                          »»» Indica/Sativa Hybrid
                                                                                        • »»» 98 Aloha WW x White Widow Clone
                                                                                            (specified above)
                                                                                            • »»» Brazil x India »»» Sativa »»» Indica
                                                                                            • »»» London Pound Cake #75 x Kush Mints #11 #75
                                                                                              • »»» Sunset Sherbert x Unknown Indica Nip Og
                                                                                                • »»» Girl Scout Cookies x Pink Panties (specified above)
                                                                                                  • »»» OG Kush South Florida x South Florida x Burma
                                                                                                      South Florida (specified above)
                                                                                                        Probably Sativa »»» Sativa
                                                                                                      • »»» Bubba Kush x Animal Mints probably
                                                                                                        • »»» Northern Lights Humboldt cut x Triangle Kush probably Humboldt cut (specified above)
                                                                                                            Florida (specified above)
                                                                                                          • »»» Animal Cookies x SinMint Cookies
                                                                                                            • »»» Girl Scout Cookies x Fire OG Bx3 (specified above) BX3
                                                                                                              • »»» Fire Kush x Unknown Strain BX3
                                                                                                                  Fire cut (specified above)
                                                                                                                • »»» Girl Scout Cookies x Blue Power (specified above)
                                                                                                                  • »»» Power x White Moonshine
                                                                                                                    • »»» Sour Dubble x SoCal Master Kush
                                                                                                                      • »»» Sour Diesel IBL x Sour Bubble IBL
                                                                                                                        • »»» Sour Diesel x NYCD IBL (specified above)
                                                                                                                          • »»» Sour Diesel x Afghani/Hawaiian (specified above)
                                                                                                                            • »»» Afghani x Hawaii
                                                                                                                                Probably Indica »»» Indica
                                                                                                                                    x Hindu Kush (specified above)
                                                                                                                                  • »»» The White x Blue Moonshine
                                                                                                                                      »»» Indica/Sativa Hybrid


                                                                                                                                        • »»» Temple Flo x HTAF F1 F3
                                                                                                                                            • »»» Purple Thai x Afghani
                                                                                                                                              • »»» H.O.G. x Chocolate Thai
                                                                                                                                                  »»» Sativa
                                                                                                                                                  »»» Sativa
                                                                                                                                                • »»» Thailand x Afghani F1 »»» Sativa (specified above)

                                                                                                                                                Map of the Truffle Cake Family Tree

                                                                                                                                                Upload your info about this strain here:

                                                                                                                                                Do you know something more about In House Genetics’ Truffle Cake? Please help to make this database better and upload/connect your information here!


                                                                                                                                                Pictures speak louder than words! Upload your "Truffle Cake" Photos here and help other growers to get a better impression of this variety.


                                                                                                                                                You have grown Truffle Cake together with another variety? Please fill out our Strain VS. Strain direct comparisation form!

                                                                                                                                                User Reviews

                                                                                                                                                Our strain reviews are multilingual, searchable and can be very detailed – including data about the grow, aroma, effects and taste! Please upload your Truffle Cake Review here to help the other seedfinder users!

                                                                                                                                                Medical Values

                                                                                                                                                You have experience with the medical qualities of Truffle Cake? Sharing your information here maybe can help other people!


                                                                                                                                                You’ve stumbled upon a Truffle Cake related thread into a forum or growers community? Connect it here and enable othe users to find this information fast and easy!


                                                                                                                                                You found a related video with additional information or grow-infos about Truffle Cake on YouTube? Please connect it here to the strain info page!

                                                                                                                                                In House Genetics Truffle Cake

                                                                                                                                                Please Note: This content is for informational and educational use only. The Attitude Seed bank sells all seeds strictly for souvenir purposes or for storage and preservation of genetics in case the laws may change. We do not condone or encourage the germination of cannabis seeds and we will refuse a sale to anyone who leads us to believe they intend to use our products in an unlawful way.
                                                                                                                                                WARNING: IT IS A CRIMINAL OFFENCE TO GERMINATE CANNABIS SEEDS IN THE UK AND MANY OTHER COUNTRIES.

                                                                                                                                                • Genetics: White Truffle x Pancakes (LPC75 X KM11)
                                                                                                                                                • Sex: Feminized
                                                                                                                                                • Flowering: Photoperiod

                                                                                                                                                > Suggestions for you

                                                                                                                                                We sell our seeds for souvenir purposes only and for storage in-case the laws change. We at ‘The Attitude’ are here to help, but we do have our restrictions. We CANNOT, and WILL NOT discuss germination / yields / THC levels, etc. of seeds as it is ILLEGAL to germinate seeds and sell them for germination purposes in the United Kingdom and we cannot be seen promoting this. Unfortunately, E-mails may be ignored and remain unanswered if questions relate to the above and you may be refused a sale should you persist in requesting further information. For more information in regards to our website, please head over to the F.A.Q. section.

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                                                                                                                                                We sell our seeds for souvenir purposes only and for storage in-case the laws change. We at ‘The Attitude’ are here to help, but we do have our restrictions. We CANNOT, and WILL NOT discuss germination / yields / THC levels, etc. of seeds as it is ILLEGAL to germinate seeds and sell them for germination purposes in the United Kingdom and we cannot be seen promoting this. Unfortunately, E-mails may be ignored and remain unanswered if questions relate to the above and you may be refused a sale should you persist in requesting further information. For more information in regards to our website, please head over to the F.A.Q. section.

                                                                                                                                                • Contact Us
                                                                                                                                                • Privacy Policy
                                                                                                                                                • Delivery Options
                                                                                                                                                • FAQs
                                                                                                                                                • Terms and Conditions
                                                                                                                                                • Printable Order Form
                                                                                                                                                • Cookies Policy

                                                                                                                                                Phone Us: (01473) 724698

                                                                                                                                                Int: 0044 1473 724698

                                                                                                                                                Int: 011 44 1473 724698

                                                                                                                                                Sign up for the newsletter

                                                                                                                                                By staying on this site, you agree to the use of cookies. You can find out more by following this link.

                                                                                                                                                Truffle Cake Strain

                                                                                                                                                The strain has a capacity for intense focus and energy. Beginners are advised to use in small doses.

                                                                                                                                                • Description
                                                                                                                                                • Additional information
                                                                                                                                                • Reviews (0)


                                                                                                                                                Product Description

                                                                                                                                                Buy Truffle Cake weed online, Buy Truffle Cake strain UK, Buy Truffle Cake online, Buy Truffle Cake strain Canada. Truffle Cake Cannabis Strain – Exotic – by Trufflez genetics brand.

                                                                                                                                                What is the Truffle Cake Cannabis Strain – Hybrid all about?

                                                                                                                                                Believed to be a strain born in California Truffle Cake is a slightly Sativa-dominant (60% Sativa/ 40% Indica) hybrid with an appearance much like an OG, and a potency associated with the best OG Kush cuts. However, the strain has an unusual terpene profile as it is almost completely lack odor.

                                                                                                                                                The buds of Truffle Cake are pretty dense, large sized, and feature an enormous coating of crystal trichomes which film the leaves with a silvery-black effect. When cured and burned, this flower gives off a faint hint dank pine. Some laboratory tests have measured Truffle Cake strain THC levels at between 26.95%.

                                                                                                                                                Effects of Truffle Cake Cannabis Strain ?

                                                                                                                                                Truffle Cake Cannabis strain is a trufflez group sativa – a daytime strain and a top choice for creative people. Its effects start with a cerebral rush that is felt almost immediately. The strain has a capacity for intense focus and energy. Although Truffle Cake strain is an introspective strain that is useful for brainstorming and problem-solving, it has a high that can be essentially described as perfectly balanced, given its equal head and body effect. Beginners are advised to use in small doses, as the high could be overwhelming, leading to paranoia or increased levels of anxiety. Therefore, Buy Truffle Cake strain Atlanta, Truffle Cake strain review, Truffle Cake weed, THC level of Truffle Cake, Effects Truffle Cake strain.

                                                                                                                                                • Relaxed
                                                                                                                                                • Euphoric
                                                                                                                                                • Happy
                                                                                                                                                • Uplifted
                                                                                                                                                • Sleepy
                                                                                                                                                Medical Benefits of Truffle Cake .

                                                                                                                                                Truffle Cake is particularly good for people with serious focus defects as it is effective in the treatment of ADD/ADHD. Users also report it an ideal strain for pain, stress, fatigue, depression, and nausea. Hence, Truffle Cake buds, Truffle Cake for sale online, Truffle Cake strain, Buy Trufflez Truffle Cake strain, Buy Trufflez Truffle Cake UK.

                                                                                                                                                THC: 26.95%

                                                                                                                                                Where to buy this strain from.

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                                                                                                                                                You might also like the Black Truffle strain.

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plant weed seeds straight in coco coir

Seedlings are sprouting in coco – what now? First grow!

Seedlings are sprouting in coco – what now? First grow!

Edited 5/28, the night before harvest.

Thanks gaiusmarius for all your help and patience.

Hey folks, I put these seeds in the towels just over 72 hours ago and the tap roots showed 24hrs later. Now they’re through the top of the coco and I was wondering what to do now. Anything but wait?

I pH’d my distilled water and moistened the towels. I put 5 White Widow, 5 Aurora Indica, and 5 bag seed between three separate sets of towels and 24 hours later 3 of the White Widow had tap roots about 3/8 of an inch long and 2 of the Aurora Indica had roots about 1/4 inch long. Still waiting on the others from those two groups. The bag seed isn’t doing much but who knows?

I had my rock wool cubes out and ready to use and got to thinking why I should use rock wool when I had Canna coco that is equally as good a medium for sprouting. So I dropped the seeds into holes I’d made in the center of the Solo cups I’d chopped down, covered the holes with a couple of pinches of coco, lightly pressed it down and misted it with more pH’d water. Must have worked OK cause they’re looking kinda happy now. I know I am.

I don’t think I should add anything should I? I have misted them about 4 or 5 times since they started breaking through and I placed the dome lid back on the propagation tray to keep the humidity level up. I lowered my 200W CFL down to within about 6" of the top of the dome. I had a heat mat under the prop tray with a temp control hooked up to it and had it set on 75 degrees while I was trying to pop the beans but turned it off after I put the containers with the seeds in them into the tray. Didn’t want to turn the roots on the new seedlings to mush with too much heat. The light seems to be providing all the heat I need right now. I still have the unsprouted seeds in a plate covered with foil in the prop tray to continue the sprouting process for the other seeds. What else should I do if anything roght now?

I know some on here have had trouble with putting their new seedlings under a dome, but I don’t see the harm as long as I don’t get it so close as to raise the temp under the dome too high. Am I right. If I remember correctly, I shouldn’t give nutes right now, should I?

I’m including pics to show the setup.

The plate with the seeds is in the background, the three White Widow just underneath that, and the 2 Aurora Indica are closest to the camera. The Aurora Indica haven’t broken through yet but their roots were shorter so I expect them any time.

This is the third White Widow and it is barely poking through.

Thanks in advance to anyone who can help out.

Ya got it going on mojo. good job.

DO keep misting them and keep the coco moist, but not too moist so the roots develop. After they get above ground, I give mine a light watering every other day, and may cut that back to every 3rd day, as long as the coco stays moist you should be good. DON’T let the coco dry out. When ya transplant them, try to get a 50/50 mix of coco and perlite.

Remember, coco is a soiless medium, so ya have to add nutes sooner than you would if you were in dirt. Ya don’t need any yet, but I started mine off on MILD nutes as soon as the first true leaves developed. When ya see the cotyledons(sp?) leaves starting to yellow, the seedling has used up it’s stored food and is looking for some more. Like I said, start them off on VERY mild nutes. I used 1/4 strength the first time, and even that was a little strong for some of them

While I’m thinking about it, if you’re starting the seeds in that dome, then covering the plate with foil inside the dome may be unnecessary. Beware dampening off.

Hope somebody with more experience coco wise comes along and helps out, I’m just getting into the coco craze myself, so take my advice with a grain of salt please.


  • Join Date: Feb 2005
  • Posts: 21079

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Thanks for the help guys.

oldpeculiar, I’m going straight Canna nutes. I have on hand Coco A+B, Rhizotonic, PK 13/14, and Cannzyme. I intend to feed light when I start. I saw others giving 2-2.5mL per liter of the A+B but I thought I would go lighter than that – the whole easier to add more than to fix a problem thing I guess. Rather err on the side of conservatism – always good, even in politics, lol. Ooops, that’s another issue, lol.

Also oldpeculiar, unless advised against it, I don’t plan to mix My coco coir with anything. I intend to go with my straight Canna brand Coco Coir. I’ve got the Canna nutes so I wanted to try to grow it without anything added. The coco drains so well and provides so much room for O2 that I don’t think I want to mess with it. I’ve got an open mind though and there are surely more people hear with a lot more experience at this than I (doesn’t take much, hehe) so I’m willing to change. I know the perlite would probably help me by holding onto the water longer and that’s worth considering with the price of these nutes. Speaking of nutes, I would also like to know if the 1 liter sizes of the Canna nutes is going to be enough to see me through this grow or if I should get some more coming.

gaiusmarius, glad you showed up, was hoping you would. I saw in another thread "seedling feeding regime" (think he meant to use regimen unless of course he’s starting a new system of govt centered around pot, which would be kickass!) . In that thread, bongoman said he was going to do the following:

[[[[These new sprouts are getting:

1mL/L of A & B
4mL/L of Rhizotonic
0 Cannazym

Once I get a couple of sets of leaves, I move to this mix:

2.5mL/L A & B
2mL/L of Rhizo
2.5mL/L of Cannazym

Does this sound a reasonable plan for seedlings in Coco? Is it too much of a jump from 1ml to 2.5ml do you think?]]]]

gm, in that thread, you OK’d his recipe. Does this still hold true? I know, in order not to hurt someone’s feelings, I will sometimes approve of somone’s plans they’ve made as long as they not going to hurt themselves in the process. Sort of used the same philosophy raising my two daughters, lol. But since I’m starting with a clean slate and very few preconceived ideas, you’re free to steer me as much as you’re willing. I don’t mind admitting ignorance, it’s easier to do than admit stupidity. Ignorance is fixable with education and constructive criticism but stupidity is forever, lol.

I finally went to bed 5 hours ago and left the dome cover off thinking my mistings needed to be evaporated a little. Woke up, came back to the thread and according to what you had written, I guessed right. One of the Aurora Indica’s is now trying to poke through and the other should be not far behind.

I’ll check my seeds in the plate in a few minutes to see if any of the other seeds have decided to heed the call of their sisters (positive thinking, lol) to join the party. Just checked and not much more yet. One more of the White Widow seeds has split and I can sort of see a little root in the seam. The same for one of the Aurora Indicas. The bag seed looks like it has some white ooze coming out of it about the color of the chemicals that leak out of an old flashlight battery.

Temp in the room is 68.2

And the temp in the tray under the 200W CFL is about 76.

As you can see, the humidity is at about 50% and I think I need more. According to what I’ve read, I need to try for high humidity levels at the beginning of veg and step it down as I go into flowering and through harvest. This afternoon I plan to go get a humidifier.

One more thing, when I transplant, what is the harm in transplanting directly into my 5gal pots instead of going 3gal and then 5 gal. I know it takes less water to water a 3gal but it seems the root growth would be less hindered in the 5gal and doing this would also eliminate the stress to the plants that transplanting heaps on them. Just wondering.

Coco Coir and Cannabis Production

Over the last decade cannabis production has come out of the closet, quite literally. The first person I knew to have grown his own cannabis (or marijuana or pot or whichever name you prefer to call it) grew several pots of it in his bedroom closet, hidden away from his parents. And while some folks may grow cannabis in places unseen by parental and other authorities’ eyes, at-home and/or commercial legal cannabis production is now A-OK in 18 states and Washington, D.C. with more coming on board every year.

If you’re just beginning to grow cannabis legally, you’ll want to grow it correctly. While we won’t get into the day-to-day details of cannabis production here, we will explain how to get your cannabis crop off to the best start possible. It all starts with your growing media (and we know growing media). Specifically, one growing media of choice for many growers is coco coir.

What Is Coco Coir?

Professional cannabis cultivators all agree that drainage and aeration are key to a successful crop. Many achieve this by using coco coir as their growing medium. Coco coir, if you’re not familiar, is produced from the humble coconut, specifically the fibrous material found between the husk and the coconut itself. This material holds water well but also allows for good drainage. (I know it’s hard to wrap your brain around being both water-holding and water-draining at the same time, but let’s chalk it up to science.) Well-draining growing media allows for good air flow, which is good for root growth. And a good, healthy root system is the secret to a great crop of pretty much anything, including cannabis.

Coco coir has another beneficial aspect that is good for not just cannabis but also the planet. It’s a renewable product. Coir’s water-holding-and-water-draining characteristic allows it to be a great substitution for peat moss, which is not a quick-to-renew resource. Less peat being used means less mining, which means less damage to the sensitive and diminishing peat bogs of the northern hemisphere. We came across an article in the New York Times that explains the peat and climate change situation HERE.

The Science of Coir

I mentioned “science” above, and it turns out “science” is a key aspect of why coco coir is an ideal medium for growing cannabis as well as other crops. Some of the properties of coir that allow crops to thrive when grown in it include:

Neutral pH. Its pH is close to neutral (6), so coir can be used straightaway. Peat is acidic (as low as 3-4) and needs to be treated with lime before use. This neutrality is good because it allows the user to add the nutrient mix of their choosing.

High cation exchange rate. This allows nutrients to be stored and used as needed, except for calcium and magnesium, which coir tends to hold on to. Adjust your nutrients accordingly. A calcium and/or magnesium supplement is a must do when growing in coco coir.

Packed with nutrients and biostimulants. It’s a formerly living thing, so it comes packed with its own set of nutrients, such as potassium, iron, manganese and zinc, to name a few. Again, you should take this into account when considering what nutrients to apply. It also contains biostimulants, which act as growth enhancers and give whatever is planted in it a boost.

Watch for salts. If there is a downside of coir it’s the fact that the product in its raw form contains salts. You, the end user buying coco coir products, don’t really need to worry too much about the salt level because it has been processed and washed extensively before you receive it. But if for some reason you’ve found some compressed blocks of raw coir, do know the salts need to be rinsed away or else it can harm your crops.

What Makes Cocodelphia Great

We at Organic Mechanics think our Cocodelphia coco coir product is one of the best on the market. Why? For one thing, we buy our coir from just one farm in India, so our variability in quality is essentially non-existent. That farm washes the coir several times and relies on the monsoons of Southeast Asia to accomplish this. Once we have received the coir, it’s washed again as we rehydrate the air-dried, compressed coir blocks. Essentially, Cocodelphia is triple washed.

Our Cocodelphia is also continually tested for heavy metals, and each test result comes back clean. Don’t just take our word for it! Our customers have done their own testing and tell us it’s the cleanest heavy metal-free coir for cannabis production around. And for you professional cannabis growers out there, you know cannabis that fails a heavy metal test means a lost crop and lost profits.

Cocodelphia is also ready to go straight out of the bag. Add in some other beneficial amendments such as Biochar Blend or Worm Castings for a punch of nutrition. Or plant in the bag and save yourself the time of potting.

For more information about coco coir, check out the great content on the Maximum Yield site, beginning with THIS ARTICLE.

Do Note! Cannabis production is not legal nationwide. While it may be legal to cultivate cannabis where you are, many states do still consider it illegal unless you possess a state-issued license. Check and abide by your state and local laws before you grow. If, however, you have the option to grow cannabis and you know you are doing everything legally, by all means, please do! And give our Cocodelphia a try while you’re at it.

How Do I Germinate Cannabis Seeds and Transplant Clones?

Clones and seedlings may seem very similar, but there are some differences between the two starting points. First of all, seedlings (small plants sprouted from seed) have a taproot. This is a central dominant root that tends to grow straight down and proliferate the branching root structures that explore the growing medium. Clones do not have a taproot; instead, they immediately begin producing a fibrous branching root structure. I would argue that the taproot is most important in outdoor grows due to the higher degree of anchoring and stem support that it can provide in windy weather.

Secondly, seeds all have unique genotypes while clones have the same genotype as the mother plant they were cut from. Truly stable seed lines produce plants with phenotypes so similar that they could be mistaken for clones, but usually in the Cannabis industry, a given seed pack for a strain may produce multiple different phenotypes. Sometimes this can be desirable if you are phenotype hunting for a unique plant to grow or breed with, but at least in large scale production, uniformity is usually preferred because it simplifies the growing, harvesting, and processing techniques

How Do I Germinate Seeds?

There are many ways to skin this particular cat. First of all, it is important to consider the environmental conditions required for germination.

While some small seeds without much of a starch reserve require light to germinate, it appears that light actually inhibits the germination of Cannabis seeds. This is likely due to the red light sensing system by light-sensing proteins called phytochromes. In general, far-red light can penetrate further into soil than red light due to the longer wavelength. Plants often utilize the ratio of far red light to red light as a way to sense depth in soil. For Cannabis, it appears that it requires a low far red/red ratio (no to minimal light) in order to germinate. However, pure darkness is unnecessary in my experience. In fact, it is a bit of a balancing act because after germination, your seedlings require light or they will not begin to produce chlorophyll and will continue to etiolate (grow and stretch in search of light to begin photosynthesis). Therefore, you will need to check your seedlings frequently so if you germinate in complete darkness, you can quickly introduce your newly sprouted seedlings to light.

Moisture and Humidity

Seedlings require water uptake in order to trigger germination. The media they are in contact with should be moist, and the humidity should be kept high but ventilated to help prevent microbial growth. In general, this translates to around 70-90% humidity. However, I don’t generally keep track of the humidity of the air in my germination area. Humidity is ensured to be high by enclosing the germination medium with a ziploc bag with holes cut in it.

I like to follow the rule of thumb: keep the temp in the 70s throughout the day and night. Don’t let temperatures dip below 70F and don’t let temperatures rise above 80F. In Celsius, this translates to approximately 21-27C. In practice, it is okay if it gets warmer, though I certainly would avoid letting temperatures get above 30C (86F). However, high heat can inhibit germination and encourage microbial growth. Also, dipping below 70F does not ensure failure, but may not be as efficient at germinating seeds.

I will only cover 2 germination methods. This is because in my opinion, they are simple, effective, and I have experience in both.

Method 1: Wet Paper Towel.

Get a paper towel and soak it in water (it is probably ideal if you get sterile, deionized water, though I generally use tap water and it works just fine). Squeeze out the paper towel so that it is damp but not wet. Place your seeds on the damp paper towel, and fold the paper towel one time over the seed. Place the folded paper towel in a gallon size plastic bag.

Option 1: Poke a few holes in the plastic bag (I like to use sharpened pencils, it has a good size for holes), blow into the bag to ensure it’s not collapsed on the paper towel, seal the bag, and place it in a dark, warm place. Check daily for germination and make sure to keep the paper towel moist. If it gets too dry, just use a spray bottle to spritz the inside of the bag and paper towel.

Option 2: Don’t poke any holes, exchange the air inside by sucking the air out the bag and blowing back into it to inflate it. Seal the bag, place it in a cool, dark place, and exchange the air in the bag once to twice/day and check frequently for germination.

Transplanting Germinated Seeds

After germination, I like to wait until the taproot is about an inch long. After this, pick it up by the seed coat with tweezers or a very gentle touch. Don’t touch the taproot. take your soil or growing medium, moisten it using appropriately pH’d water (around 6.5 for soil) and prepare a a hole deep enough to place the germinated seed in with the taproot facing down and the seed coat barely below the soil line. Place the seed in so that the taproot is straight down and so that the tip of the taproot is not bent or hooked when you plant it.

Method 2:

Plant your seed directly in a seed starter (I like to use coco coir with a bit of mycorrhizal fungi sprinkled in).

Option 1 is to buy seed starter coco coir pellets. All that is required is to wet the pellets with properly pH’d sterile water. They will expand and will have a small hole in the center for you to place your seed. After planting your seed, gently cover it up. This will provide both light and local humidity around your seed. Cover the pellet loosely with an open plastic bag to help retain moisture and leave it on a windowsill or under artificial light. This will ensure that once the seed germinates under the soil which is dark and humid, it will sprout above the ‘soil’ line, remain in a humid environment in the plastic bag , and will also be exposed to light so that the seedling can begin photosynthesis. I do not like to use peat moss or peat-based pellets such as Jiffy pellets. First of all, coco coir is far more environmentally friendly because peat is a nonrenewable resource, unlike coco coir. I stay away from rock wool for the same reason, coco coir is just a more responsible consumer choice for the environment. Secondly, peat is extremely acidic and may affect nutrient uptake early in a plant’s life as compared to coco coir. For all seed starting mixes, I like to make about a quarter of the volume perlite. Seedlings do not uptake water well and you want good soil aeration to avoid damping off and root rot diseases. If you use premade pellets, you will not have this option.

Option 2 is to fill a small, 2-3 oz plastic cup with coco coir, moisten it and make a hole for the seed yourself, and sow your seed. Follow the same directions as outlined for the pellets.

What do I do now that my seedling has germinated?

Now that you have a germinated seedling, you will notice two small ‘leaves’ that are kind of oval-shaped. These are known as cotyledons, and can actually help provide your plant with nutrients that were stored in the seed until the plant can feed on fertilizer or nutrients in soil depending on your growing style.

You will want to provide your plant with enough light to not stretch out. You can get away with using even a 60W single CFL ‘grow’ bulb for a seedling, but I tent to keep my seedlings under a 300W LED panel. I like to keep the light source about a foot from the top of my seedling.

Go ahead and keep the temperatures in the 70s (Farenheit). This is a great range for Cannabis growth and isn’t as conducive to disease development as warmer temperatures.

You will want to slowly lower the relative humidity. Keeping the same level of humidity as for germination will prove to be too conducive to disease development especially seedling damping off and root rots. Go ahead and keep the plastic bag over the seedling at first, and slowly increase the amount of time each day that it is not under the plastic bag. In general, I like to leave the bag off the seedling at night after it sprouts and during the day, reduce the time it is under the bag by an hour each day until the second set of true leaves are visible, then remove it altogether.

Seedlings require more moisture that mature plants but you also want to avoid root rots. Therefore, I like to use a spray bottle to mist the soil every day without soaking it. This should be done until the second set of true leaves are visible, then begin your normal watering schedule. Your seed starter mix should not have fertilizer in it. Your plant should have all the nutrients it needs from the cotyledons and all the energy it needs from photosynthesis. However, after the first true leaves are fairly large and the second set of true leaves are barely visible, I will sometimes include a Nitrogen dominant fertilizer at 1/4 strength in the spray bottle and lightly mist until slightly damp (I only ever do this once before transplanting, and only if the leaves are looking light). I tend to use liquid fertilizers (you can find conventional or organic fertilizers depending on your fancy).

Transplanting Your Seedling

By the time the second set of true leaves have grown in, your seed starter plug should be colonized by roots. Or, if you purchased a clone, it is likely already rooted in a rock wool cube. Take a pot approximately 10x the volume of your rooting medium, fill it with the planting medium of your choice (soil or soilless medium[if soilless, it is a good idea to do a light feeding (1/4 strength) as well at this point]). Water the medium in your new pot before transplanting and allow it to drain to field capacity. Make a crater in the center of your moistened medium deep enough to completely cover the seedling medium. I like the lowest nodes on the plant to be about 1-2″ above the soil line after planting. Place in your rooting plant, fill in the crater, smooth it out, and lightly pack in the planting medium around the stem of your plant. Water the pot once more to ensure the soil settles in, allow it to drain capacity.

Congratulations, you have germinated your seed and/or transplanted your clone/seedling. That was pretty easy, right?