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Midwest Seed Production Demonstration Report – Organic Seed Alliance

A sustainable food system depends on a seed system that is decentralized, robust, and responsive to farmers’ needs. Over the last 100 years, seed systems have become consolidated and corporatized, with 3 global companies now owning over 65% of the world’s agricultural plant genetic resources (Organic Seed Alliance, State of Organic Seed Report, 2016). Farmer-driven plant breeding, coupled with local seed production and marketing, relocates control of seed in farmers’ hands. As the climate changes and consumer preferences evolve, regional seed systems and collaborative plant breeding allow farmers to adapt crops to their unique and shifting circumstances, and to keep the revenue of seed sales circulating locally. This model of a decentralized, regional, collaborative seed system allows farmers more power in their seed choices compared to a system that depends on large agricultural companies to meet farmer needs and benefit from the resulting profit. There is a resurgence of interest in on-farm seed production and breeding in the Midwest as a means to counter these trends in industry consolidation and to reinvigorate robust regional seed systems.

As farmers’ awareness of the importance of regional seed systems grows, so does the demand for regionally adapted varieties and regionally produced seed. The COVID-19 pandemic gave an unexpected boost to that demand, as a population suddenly stuck at home developed a strong appetite for gardening and homesteading. Nature and Nurture Seeds, based in Ann Arbor, MI, reported a sales increase of 400-500% in April of 2020 over the previous year, and that level of demand appears consistent with seed sales in 2021 . Given the surge in demand, seed companies are in need of more seed growers and are often willing to help guide beginning seed growers in producing their first commercial contracts. The goal of this report is to provide prospective seed growers in the Upper Midwest with some baseline economic and production information to consider when exploring a potential shift into commercial seed production.

Project Summary

The information in this report was gathered as part of a North Central SARE Partnership Project, completed as a collaboration between Organic Seed Alliance and North Circle Seeds beginning in 2019 and ending in 2021. The goal of the project was to explore the viability of commercial seed production of five economically important crops on four small market farmers throughout Minnesota. The varieties selected for the project were bred or successfully trialled on farms in the Upper Midwest, but were not yet popularized in commercial seed catalogues. Farmers were compensated for their time producing seeds and tracking data for enterprise budgets, and the seeds produced were sold through North Circle Seeds. The project also had a strong peer to peer educational component, including four webinars on seed production and seed business topics delivered during the project period. Links to recordings of these webinars can be found in Appendix A.

The four project partners were Zachary Paige, farmer and proprietor of North Circle Seeds, Sue Wika at Paradox Homestead, Greg Reynolds at Riverbend Farm and Kaare and Pam Melby at Finskogen Farm. All seed grown in this project was produced in accordance with the standard of the national organic program, though not all participating farms are certified organic.

Project Objectives
  1. Build farmers’ capacity to produce high-quality seed of regionally-adapted crops for commercial contracts and on-farm use
  2. Build farmers capacity to track labor and inputs to inform future contract negotiations
  3. Understand which seed crops are most practical for Minnesota farmers to produce through enterprise budgeting, on-farm observation of seed crops and seed quality testing
  4. Develop farmers’ ability to grow and save seed of culturally and economically important crops

General Tips for Beginning Seed Growers


As a beginning seed grower, it is important to select seed crops that can ripen and be produced relatively disease-free in your climate. The climate of the Upper Midwest presents unique challenges for organic seed production. Summers are short and humid, winters are long and cold. Since many fungal and bacterial pathogens spread through moisture, the humidity of the summer months can make managing disease in seed crops difficult. Cultural practices that increase airflow- like spacing, trellising and cultivating- are very important in this climate. Dry-seeded crops, which reach maturity when the seed and surrounding plant tissue are dry, can be especially difficult to produce disease -free, as the dry months of late summer yield quickly to the threat of first frost. The long cold winters make it difficult to over-winter biennial crops in the field. Most seed producers in the Upper Midwest dig up and store steckling of biennial plants over the winter, and replant them in the spring. While this presents additional work for the grower, it also allows an opportunity for additional selection based on steckling characteristics. For more information on which seed crops generally grow well in the Midwest, and which are more difficult, see Appendix B. Midwest Seed Crops, contributed by Erica Kempter of Nature and Nurture Seeds in Ann Arbor, MI.

The Upper Midwest has experienced more dramatic weather events in recent years due to climate change. Alternating periods of drought and flood challenge farmers of all kinds. As with other farming operations, seed growers can mitigate the effects of extreme weather somewhat by growing a diversity of seed crops. If extreme weather hits one crop in a particularly vulnerable point of its life cycle, chances are a different crop will be strong enough to pull through and ripen seed. Seed growers in this region also rely on a good sense of humor about the weather, noting that “a bad weather year is a good selection year.” This means that whatever plants survive a bout of bad weather are the heartiest of the bunch, and the best candidates for perpetuating into future generations.

Farm System

It is important to choose seed crops that fit within your farm system. If you grow on a small acreage and are also producing vegetables for market, it is best to choose seed crops that tend not to cross pollinate. If you do choose to grow seed of an “out-crosser” make sure to observe the proper isolation distances, or create pollination barriers to make sure the seed crop is not crossing with other varieties. It is also best to produce seed of crops that you are familiar with growing for market. This will help flatten the learning curve of transitioning to seed production. At first, try not to select seed crops that require additional equipment for harvesting and cleaning, beyond what you already use for market farming. Screens, buckets, paper bags, tarps, and fans for winnowing and drying are the basic equipment that serve seed growers in their first experiments with seed production, and often throughout their seed growing career as long as they remain at a scale appropriate for hand-labor. As the scale of production increases, assess the return on investment of purchasing key pieces of equipment that can increase seed cleaning efficiency and precision. OSA is developing a seed cleaning equipment toolkit in the that will help growers navigate equipment choices, access, and costs.


Clint Freund, midwest seed grower and proprietor of Cultivating the Commons in Milaca, MN, recommends experimenting with growing seed crops that you really like working with, rather than tailoring crop choices to potential markets. Curiosity and a natural inclination toward the crop will pull you through the many rounds of trial and error that lead to competence in seed production, while an intellectual understanding of a “market opportunity” might not provide the same motivation. Getting really good at producing some seed crops can help solidify your relationships with seed company buyers, and help growers generate the confidence they will need to eventually take on crops that are harder to produce.

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Regional seed companies are generally very supportive of beginning seed growers, especially those who communicate regularly, deliver on contracts and demonstrate their commitment to continued improvement in seed production. Some regional seed companies structure their pricing to incentivize new growers, working at a hand-labor scale, to continue refining their skill set. Still, the early years of seed production can be a lot of work, for not much return. Erica Kempter from Nature and Nurture Seeds in Ann Arbor, MI encourages beginning seed growers to start small, and to ensure that the time and resources they dedicate to a crop can at least be covered, if not exceeded, by the contracted price for the seed. For more information on general trends in contract pricing, see Appendix C. Seed Price Comparison.

Clint Freund also recommends growing seed of crops that can serve a dual purpose in your business plan. For example, he grows a hot pepper on contract for a regional seed company and also sells the pepper flesh to a local hot-sauce maker. He also sells cabbage heads to a sauerkraut maker, and keeps the base and stems for making seed. This is not possible for all seed crops, of course, but might entice a beginning seed grower to think creatively about the revenue potential of producing seed of particular crops.

Seed Production Demonstration: Seed Economics by Crop

For this project, the participating farmers selected five seed crops to fit their markets, production capacity and climatic constraints: Tomato, Kale, Squash, Potato and Carrot. Tomato is a very common crop for beginning seed producers. Because most tomato varieties do not easily cross, growers can be relatively certain of the genetic purity of the seed. Furthermore, the seed ripens in the flesh of the fruit where it is somewhat protected from seed-borne disease, and relatively easy to extract and clean. Squash is similarly straight forward, though it is an out-crossing crop, requiring significant isolation distance or pollinator management. Kale and carrot are more difficult because they are biennial crops, and dry seeded so they are more vulnerable to the effects of humidity. Seed potatoes are difficult to produce disease-free in this climate, but there is a high demand for locally grown seed potato tubers, so the project partners wanted to experiment with this crop.

Most of the project partners grew out 1-2 varieties of these crops, and North Circle seeds produced all of them. The varieties were chosen based on adaptation to the Upper Midwest climate (discerned from previous production, selection or trialling history), as well as the variety’s “averageness” or closeness to what is generally considered the archetype for that crop (eg. large red slicer tomato). Each partner recorded their labor and expenses in producing the crop, which were used to assess the fitness of that crop for each farm system and to guide pricing for the seeds. Tables A, B and C include the information growers tracked in order to create basic enterprise budgets of the seed crops they grew. Table A outlines the activities farmers included in their labor tracking. For repeated activities such as weeding and watering, some growers chose to use the labor tracking sheets in Appendix D. Table B includes information used to calculate the cost of equipment and supplies used, prorated per crop. Because all the growers used minimal mechanization to produce seed, they chose not to worry about equipment depreciation in their reporting, but a larger more mechanized operation would likely include depreciation in their calculations. Table C was used to calculate the cost of land used to produce the seed crop, also prorated per crop. To calculate the total cost of production, we added the totals for each of these and then added a 10% overhead fee to account for various costs associated with marketing and business management. Together, all these costs gave us an estimate cost of production.

Table A. Labor Tracking (per crop)
Task Hours Spent
Pest control
Applying fertilizer
Total labor hours
Cost of labor @ $XX/hour
Table B. Equipment or Supplies Tracking (per crop)
Name of item
Expected life of the item
Hours spent using for this crop
Hours spent using total in 2020
Prorated cost of equipment
Table C. Land Cost (per crop)
Cost of land (rent or land value) per acre
Square feet of land used for the crop
Prorated cost of land
General Trends

One general trend was the relationship between the maturity of the farming system and the marginal costs of producing the seed crop. The more experienced growers, though they were not producing seed on a larger scale, had an easier time fitting seed production into their existing system, and already had labor-saving equipment to help reduce the cost of labor. However, more mechanization led to an increase in equipment cost that would be more easily borne across a larger scale of production. So the smaller scale farmers had higher labor costs but lower equipment costs, and the larger scale farmers had lower labor costs but higher pro-rated equipment costs. On balance, the larger scale more mechanized farms had slightly lower costs overall.

Isolation was also an important cost to consider, as the larger scale growers were able to keep out-crossing crops separated by distance, and to spread out the cost of isolation over a large operation; while the smaller growers needed to invest in isolation equipment.

The cost of organic certification was not included in these budget estimates. It would be interesting to analyze the scale of seed production at which the cost of certification (in money and time) would become worthwhile, and the price premium needed to make it so.

Approximate Cost of Production by Crop

Tables (D) through (I) include cost of production information for each of the trial crops. All of the data presented here was collected and contributed by Zachary Paige at North Circle Farm, as an example of costs per crop for a small scale, hand-labor based seed operation. The information collected at the other participating farms was analyzed and kept for use at each farm.

Table D. Carrot (Biennial, produced 2019–2020)
Variety Early Scarlet Horn
Variety info 8 in. orange carrot
Labor hours 44
Labor cost $660.00
Equipment used Broadfork, sheers, paper bags, screens, winnow wizard
Prorated equipment cost $45.48
Land used 250 sq ft
Prorated land cost $4.10
10% overhead $75.51
Estimated cost of production $830.57
Seed yield 14.5 oz – 426,471 seeds
Table E. Tomato
Variety Kathy’s Red Barn
Variety info Large red beefsteak, selected in MN
Labor hours 39
Labor cost $585.00
Equipment used Harvest bins, wagon, 5 gallon buckets, dehydrator, screens
Prorated equipment cost $23.71
Land used 200 sq ft
Prorated land cost $3.28
10% overhead $58.83
Estimated cost of production $647.11
Seed yield 1 oz – 32,000 seeds
Table F. Kale (Biennial, stecklings produced in 2020, second season 2021 projections included)
Variety Wild Garden Lacinato
Variety info Broad lead dark green kale with red stem
Labor hours 59
Labor cost $885.00
Equipment used Shovel, root bag, shears, paper bag, winnow wizard, screens
Prorated equipment cost $115.40
Land used 256 sq ft
Prorated land cost $4.20
10% overhead $100.46
Estimated cost of production $1,105.06
Seed yield TBD, 100 stecklings saved
Table G. Winter Squash
Variety North Circle Butternut
Variety info Classic butternut, selected in MN
Labor hours 42
Labor cost $630.00
Equipment used Wagon, dehydrator, hose, screen, winnow wizard
Prorated equipment cost $11.05
Land used 560 sq ft
Prorated land cost $9.18
10% overhead $65.02
Estimated cost of production $715.26
Seed yield 2 lbs – 10,000 seeds
Table H. Potato (tubers)
Variety Dark Red Norland
Variety info Red skin white flesh
Labor hours 61
Labor cost $915.00
Equipment used Wagon, Broadfork
Prorated equipment cost $9.16
Land used 240 sq ft
Prorated land cost $3.94
10% overhead $92.81
Estimated cost of production $1,020.91
Seed yield 840 lbs


The approximate cost of production calculated for each crop was compared to the expected revenue from North Circle Seeds’ sales of each crop. All seed crops had the potential to produce a profit for the seed company. Winter squash was the only crop for which the projected revenue may not have justified the expense of production. This was likely because of the weight of the squash, and the amount of labor required to harvest the gourds, move them and then extract the seed. A more mechanized operation would be able to minimize these costs using labor-saving equipment such as a vine thresher. The cost of testing seed potato lots for disease, and the potential losses associated with not selling disease tubers also jeopardized the potential profit from seed potato sales.

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Demand for regionally adapted and regionally-produced seed in the Upper Midwest will continue to grow as consumers re-invest in local and self-produced sources of food. In order to meet this demand, farm-scale seed savers will have an opportunity to professionalize their seed work and step up to contract seed production. Organic Seed Alliance will continue to partner with farmers in the region to support skill development in seed production, seed business and the cultural elements of seed work.


Hubbard, K and J Zystro. “State of Organic Seed.” Organic Seed Alliance: Port Townsend, WA. 2016.

Appendix A. Additional Resources

Webinars Targeting Midwest Seed Growers

Webinar 4: Midwest Seed Growers Community Meeting and Skill Share, held February 19, 2020 Breakout groups, not recorded

Related Organic Seed Alliance Publications

Appendix B. Midwest Seed Crops

Erica Kempter, Nature and Nurture Seeds

Best Seed Crops for the Midwest

Wet-Seeded Crops

  • Tomatoes
  • Peppers (isolate varieties by covering with screen netting or row cover fabric)
  • Ground cherry
  • Tomatillo
  • Melon
  • Watermelon
  • Cucumber
  • Squash/pumpkins (choose varieties that are sure to ripen in your growing zone)

Dry-Seeded Crops

  • Amaranth, sunflowers, other flowers
  • Okra
  • Chives, garlic chives, perennial onions
  • Annual brassicas (Arugula, Brassica rapa – i.e. Mizuna, Brassica juncea – i.e. Ruby Streaks)
  • Radish (annual “spring radish” types) (start in hoophouse)
  • Radish (biennial types – i.e. Daikon, Watermelon)
  • Onions and leeks (biennial)
  • Kale, collards, cabbage (biennial)
  • Beans (beware of viruses)
  • Peas (beware of viruses)
More Difficult Seed Crops for the Midwest

Wet-Seeded Crops

  • Eggplant
    • Need warm fall to mature seeds
    • Choose early varieties
    • Grow in hoophouse

    Dry-Seeded Crops

    • Lettuce, spinach
      • Field grown: Rain can cause disease/damage seeds
      • Hoophouse grown: high temp may cause harvested seeds to have low germination rates
      Most Difficult Seed Crops

      Dry-Seeded Crops

      • Basil
        • Summers are too short
        • Seeds don’t all ripen in time for efficient harvest
        • Rain/humidity can damage seeds
        • High temps affect germination rates
        • Plants need to be isolated from wild Queen Anne’s Lace
        • Seeds can easily get contaminated with GE corn
        • Can have random low germ rates

        Appendix C. Seed Price Comparison

        Appendix D. Labor Tracking Tool for Seed Producers

        Special thanks to Zachary Paige, Sue Wika, Greg Reynolds, Pam Melby, Kaare Melby, Ryan Pesch, Clint Freund, Erica Kempter, Koby Jeschkeit-Hagen, Ira Wallace, Rue Genger, Laurie McKenzie, Petra Page-Mann, and Beth Corymb for their contributions to this project.

        Seed (level generation)

        Seeds are somewhat compatible across editions, with terrain generation and biomes being the same between seeds -2147483648 to 2147483647. However, structure locations still remain different between Java Edition and Bedrock Edition.

        Java Edition seeds between Alpha 1.2.0 and Beta 1.7.3 are mostly the same. Beta 1.8 changed world generation completely, and Release 1.2 changed locations of land biomes with the addition of jungles. Release 1.7.2 rewrote the world generation entirely, determining the arrangement of land biomes and oceans that are present until 1.17. 1.13 featured addition of underwater caves, new aquatic biomes, and adjustment to locations of mutated biomes and structures. 1.14 included the new bamboo jungle biome, and added snowy tundra villages and pillager outposts. In 1.16, shipwrecks and ocean ruins were made rarer, and four new biomes were added to the Nether. World generation is overhauled in 1.18, with the addition of bigger caves, biomes in caves, new mountains, changes in terrain height, and changed location of some structures. Not mentioned are structure additions in several updates throughout, but the addition of a generated structure usually does not require a complete change of biome generation.

        Legacy Console Edition seeds were updated in a similar schedule to Java Edition equivalents.

        In Bedrock Edition, the 0.9.0 update was the first update to overhaul world generation. Oceans were changed in the Update Aquatic. Villages and other structures were changed in Village & Pillage. 1.17.0 changed the location algorithm for some structures such as dungeons. World generation is overhauled in 1.18.0, becoming the second update to overhaul the world generation entirely, with the addition of bigger caves, biomes in caves, new mountains, and changes in terrain height.

        Until 1.17, certain seeds share a similar biome map across Java and Bedrock with some terrain differences and no similarity in generated structure locations. From 1.18 onwards, all Bedrock Edition seed numbers share a similar terrain and biome map across Java and Bedrock, but still with no similarity in generated structure locations.

        World generation [ ]

        Whenever the game has to generate a new world, it calls upon an algorithm known as Perlin noise. This algorithm outputs a pseudo-random value that is then used to determine the characteristics and features of the world. However, the algorithm always outputs the same value each time for a constant starting point (seed). Thus, the same seed generates the same terrain every time.

        A world’s seed is set when that world is created. By default, it is decided automatically, but it can also be set manually. Setting and reusing a seed from one world generates the same world. Either a number or a word/phrase can be used, including negatives. If a word/phrase is used, it is converted into a 32-bit integer.

        Whenever the world generation algorithm is updated (usually by adding new biomes to the game), the same seed no longer generates the same terrain. If the seed or generator changes in a saved world, new chunks are based on the new seed and no longer match those from the old seed. In Java Edition, major (terrain-breaking) changes were observed with Alpha v1.2.0, Beta 1.8, 1.7.2, and 1.18. Deleted chunks can regenerate if the seed and generator remain the same, but changes if either the seed or generator changes. In fact, deleting chunks is sometimes done to let newly-introduced features appear in an old world; see Tutorials/Updating old oceans in 1.13 using MCEdit.

        Because seeds are simply random values read into an algorithm and not actually names of different worlds, using a certain seed does not result in a world with any relevance to the value of that seed. For instance, using a biome name as the seed does not necessarily result in the creation of a world with primarily that biome, nor does it spawn the player within the said biome.

        Determining the seed [ ]

        In Java Edition, the player can enter the command /seed to view the world’s seed. This command is available in singleplayer worlds even if cheats are off. The player can also select ‘Re-create’ in the Worlds menu to see the seed.

        In Bedrock Edition, the seed can be found on the world options screen. There is also a seed picker that offers the player several pre-set seeds to generate worlds with specific features near the spawn point. Additionally, the beta version has a visible seed on the top of the screen.

        Technical [ ]

        Realms [ ]

        In Java Edition, a player can type /seed in the chat. In Bedrock Edition, the seed is not visible when playing on Realms.

        Java Edition [ ]

        If the seed contains characters other than numbers or is greater than or equal to 20 characters in length, the Java String.hashCode() function is used to generate a number seed. This restricts Minecraft to a subset of the possible worlds to 2 32 (or 4,294,967,296), due to the int datatype used. Number seeds or a default world seed must be used to access the full set of possible worlds (2 64 , or 18,446,744,073,709,551,616). There are 2 48 meaningful seeds because Java’s Random uses 48 bits of the seed; seeds are equivalent to one another modulo 2 48 .

        Bedrock Edition [ ]

        Bedrock Edition has a total of 2 32 (or 4,294,967,296) possible worlds no matter whether strings or numbers are used as the seed. This is because Bedrock Edition uses a 32-bit variant of the Mersenne Twister PRNG, which accepts only 32-bit seeds. The hashing algorithm is identical to String.hashCode() : a hash h starts with 0, and for each character c, the value of h is changed to h * 31 + c, within the boundary of a 32-bit integer.‌ [ until BE 1.18.20]

        Overlap between editions [ ]

        All Java and Bedrock Edition seeds in the range from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647, generate the same terrain and biomes in both Java and Bedrock editions, although with differing structures, decorator placements, carver caves, and mob spawns.

        Seed 0 [ ]

        In Java Edition, the numeric entry for Minecraft seeds does not allow the number “0” (zero), as the game interprets “0” as a character, hashing it to its ASCII value of 48 . However, by using a text seed for which the Java String.hashCode() function returns a zero value, the “zero seed” can still be used. Word strings that produce a zero seed include creashaks organzine , pollinating sandboxes , and drumwood boulderhead . [2] However, any text that hashes to 0 works, such as ddnqavbj , and 166lr735ka3q6 , with zsjpxah being the shortest.

        In Bedrock Edition, the game rejects all numbers from -9 to +9. [3] However, changing the last character of the seed by one also changes the output hash code by one, so to arrive to a value of +2 from creashaks organzine , the last letter is advanced two positions to become creashaks organzing . The shortest version is still ddnqavb , followed by any other letter from a through s .‌ [ until BE 1.18.20]

        Generation quirks [ ]

        Through certain seeds, it is possible to observe interesting effects.

        Changing terrain without changing some structures [ ]

        Only certain sections of the seed are used to generate specific features within the world. It is possible to generate multiple worlds with identical cave systems, Nether biomes and other arrangements of generated structures simply by converting the seed into binary and tweaking the desired bits. [4] An example is the seed generator using only the first 48 bits to generate cave systems and badlands clay banding layers.

        Shadow seeds [ ]

        Until Java Edition 1.17.1, the biome distribution of one world is identical to the biome distribution of another world whose seed can be found by subtracting the current seed from the constant -7379792620528906219 . The terrain generates differently in both worlds, however.

        Repetition [ ]

        Seed 164311266871034 in spectator mode. Caves are repetitive along the Z axis.

        Seed 1669320484 in Bedrock Edition, with repeating canyons.

        Certain seeds return 0 in the internal code, [5] causing infinite arrays of caves and other structures to generate. [6] In Java and Legacy Console editions, the seed 107038380838084 returns 0 on the first call and 164311266871034 returns 0 on the second call, causing mineshafts, caves and underwater ravines to loop on the X and Z axes respectively. [7] Underwater caves and normal ravines do not repeat with this seed for 1.13 onward, as a salt was unaccountably added for these. However, if 1 is subtracted from either seed, ravines and underwater caves repeat, but the other three structures do not.

        Other features can also repeat, such as decorations. These instead generate diagonally. [8]

        In Bedrock Edition, diagonal cave, ravine, dungeon, and decoration repetition occur with the seeds 289849025 and 1669320484 . [9] Mineshaft generation repeats vertically in the seeds -1171867832 and 1000686894 . [10]

        Video [ ]

        History [ ]

        Java Edition pre-Classic
        rd-160052 Added a simple level generator.
        Java Edition Classic
        0.0.12a Added a new level generator.
        August 25, 2009 Showed another new level generator, which generates cliffs more commonly.
        Java Edition Indev
        0.31 20091223-2 Isometric level rendering screenshot added.
        20100106 The player can now select island, floating, flat, or original as the level type when generating a world.
        Players can also select square, long, or deep as the level shape.
        Players can also select small, normal, or huge as the level size.
        20100107 Deep floating maps now have layers of islands.
        Players can now select a level theme; normal or hell.
        20100110 Islands now generate with more sand.
        20100113 Oceans now generate with infinite water.
        20100122 Water now spawns naturally above sea level and on floating islands.
        Caves are now less flooded.
        Java Edition Infdev
        20100227-1 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        World generation has been greatly simplified (with the removal of sand, blobs) in order to make infinite world generation implementation easier to work with.
        20100227-2 Brick pyramid generation changed – they will now always come to a single point at the top, rather than sometimes being truncated, resulting in “brick square frusta”.
        20100313 Oceans are considerably larger than before. [check the code]
        20100320 Reimplemented primitive blob generation, in which they spawn as scattered, single blocks.
        Reimplemented tree generation.
        20100325 Blob generation has been changed to the modern generation type. However, a float is used in their generation, causing their generation to break down at excessive distances.
        Added caves. They generate through all blocks, not just terrain blocks.
        20100327 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        World generation has been significantly overhauled, which is visually very obvious.
        Removed caves.
        Removed random patches of flowers.
        The large stone wall at 33,554,432 no longer generates. Instead, the Far Lands generate at 12,550,824.
        20100413 All trees are now large trees.
        Sand and gravel now generate with the world again.
        20100420 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        World generation seems considerably less mountainous.
        20100608 All trees are now small trees again – big trees do not generate.
        20100611 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        Terrain now appears to come in large islands.
        Terrain can now generate high enough to be higher than the world height limit, causing it to be cut off.
        Monoliths now have the potential to generate. [verify]
        The amount of trees that generate appears to be different now.
        20100616 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        Terrain generation in ocean areas is now different. [verify]
        Reimplemented caves.
        Random patches of flowers and mushrooms now generate.
        Springs now generate.
        Lava now naturally generates, although how it does so exactly is unknown.
        Java Edition Alpha
        v1.2.0 preview Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        Java Edition Beta
        1.3 It is now possible to manually determine the seed upon world creation.
        1.8 Pre-release Terrain-breaking change to world gen.
        The debug screen now displays the seed number.
        Java Edition
        1.2.1 ? Multiplayer servers no longer send the seed to clients.
        1.3.1 12w18a Due to singleplayer becoming multiplayer, the world’s seed is no longer displayed on the debug screen.
        12w21a Added /seed , which displays the current world seed.
        1.7.2 13w36a Terrain-breaking change to world gen with the introduction of many new biomes.
        1.13 18w06a World generator rewritten in a non-breaking way.
        1.18 1.18 Experimental Snapshot 1 Terrain-breaking change to the world gen with the introduction of multinoise, terrain noise, biome builders, and new caves.
        Seed limit is now 48-bit.
        1.18 experimental snapshot 2 World generator rewritten in a non-breaking way.
        21w41a Replaced the random number generator used in world generation, which reverted the seed limit back to 64-bit.
        Seeds have been reshuffled due to this change. Worlds will not look like as they did in previous snapshots.
        21w43a Seeds have been reshuffled again. Worlds will not look like as they did in previous snapshots.
        1.18.2 22w03a The seed “0” (zero) can now be used normally.
        Any spaces before or after an inputted seed will now be trimmed.
        Pocket Edition Alpha
        v0.1.0 Added seeds.
        v0.9.0 build 1 Terrain-breaking change to world gen: using any given seed on older versions now generates a different world.
        Bedrock Edition
        1.18.0 beta Terrain-breaking change to the world gen. Revamp Caves, Mountains, and Terrain height system.
        beta Replaced the random number generator used in world generation, resulting in different terrain being generated using same seed.
        beta Seeds have been reshuffled again. Worlds will not look like as they did in previous betas.
        Upcoming Bedrock Edition
        1.18.20 beta Worlds can now be created with 64-bit seeds.
        Single-digit seeds such as “0” can now be used normally.

        Trivia [ ]

        • It is possible to generate Legacy Console Edition biomes on Java Edition version 1.7.2 – 1.12.2 by modifying the source code to remove 2 hard-coded layers in the biome stage of biome generation, which downscales the biomes 4x to obtain the final Legacy Console biome map, as the 1.12.2 old Customized’s biome size option uses a different hard-coded formula to downscale/upscale biomes. Specifically, legacy console edition does not scale the biomes 2x immediately prior to where the biome edges are applied, whereas Java Edition customized changes the number of times biomes are scaled after beaches are placed on the biome map.

        Notable Java Edition seeds [ ]

        The following map seeds have, at one point or another, been used for generating official Minecraft maps and resources or otherwise significant community material.

        See also  pistachio seeds