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canadian prohibited noxious weed seeds

Weed Seeds Order Review – Proposal for Change
6.0 Proposed Species Placement and Rationales

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This consultation document contains species profiles for 104 species. The intent is not necessarily to include all of these species or to dramatically change the size of the WSO , but to provide stakeholders with the opportunity to comment on all species considered and identify which species they feel are most important to include in the WSO .

Species are suggested for listing because they fit or continue to fit the definition of Prohibited, Primary, Secondary or Noxious as outlined above.

Listed species are selected because movement and spread occurs via the seed pathway. Certain species may also reproduce by other means i.e. vegetative, but are listed on the WSO , as some percentage of reproduction is by seed.

Stakeholders should consider that delisting a species may have repercussions as overall purity standards of seed may decline, and trading partners may look to Canada as a dumping ground for seed with lower purity standards. Placement of species within the WSO can affect the grade applied to particular lots of seed. A listing of impurities (weed seeds and other crops) found in seed over the 2001-2008 time period is included in this document.

Other considerations include demonstration of herbicide resistance and particular concern for certain production practices such as organic, or reduced tillage systems. Affects on human and animal health are noted. Areas requiring further research are also noted. Much of the species specific information was obtained from Pest Risk Assessment documents written by CFIA botanists.

Latin Name: Aegilops cylindrica Host
English Common Name: Jointed goatgrass
French Common Name: Égilope cylindrique
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

As A. cylindrica is under eradication in Ontario, it still meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed. Therefore it is proposed that A.cylindrica remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Alopecurus myosuroides
English Common Name: Slender foxtail
French Common Name: Vulpin des champs
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Bothriochloa ischaemum
English Common Name: Yellow bluestem
French Common Name: Chiendent à balai, barbe-de-Dieu, pied-de-poule
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

The results of the Weed Risk Assessment were that B. ischaemum has the potential to establish and become weedy or invasive across much of Canada NAPPFAST zones 2 and higher). Therefore, based on these results, it is proposed that B. ischaemum be included as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Centaurea iberica
English Common Name: Iberian star thistle
French Common Name: Centaurea iberica
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Centaurea solstitialis
English Common Name: Yellow starthistle
French Common Name: Centaurée du solstice
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Centaurea solstitialis is a winter annual herbaceous plant, rarely a biennial or short-lived perennial. Yellow starthistle is poisonous to livestock (horses). C. solstitialis has been reported to occur in Canada, but there is no evidence of persistent populations and no evidence was found that it is cultivated in Canada. Therefore, this species is considered absent. Based on the current range of established populations in the USA , it appears that this species would survive to NAPPFAST Zone 5. C. solstitialis was added to the WSO in 1986 as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Based on the outcome of the pest risk assessment, C. solstitialis is considered likely to establish and become invasive in parts of Canada, including southern BC , if it is introduced to these areas. It is proposed that C. solstitialis remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Crupina vulgaris
English Common Name: Common crupina
French Common Name: Crupine commune
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

As it is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat to Canada, it is proposed that C. vulgaris remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Echinochloa colona
English Common Name: Jungle rice
French Common Name: Échinochloé cultivé
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Echinochloa colona is an annual grass in the tribe Paniceae. E. colona grows in cultivated fields, waste ground and along ditches. E. colona is most likely to enter Canada as a contaminant of seed and grain lots, but seeds of Echinochloa are difficult to identify to species, so it is probably that such contaminant seeds would be misidentified as barnyard grass. E. colona is likely to survive to USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6b, therefore corn and soybean production in a small area of south western ON would be the one area of concern. E. colona is propagated primarily by seed. Multiple herbicide resistance has been observed in this species within several herbicide groups.

The seeds of E. colona can be identified by seed analysts under the microscope. The regulation of this species has the potential to greatly increase the number of submissions of Echinochloa seeds, common contaminants of seed, to the CFIA seed laboratory for identification.

Latin Name: Echium plantagineum
English Common Name: Paterson’s curse
French Common Name: Vipérine faux-plantain
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Echium plantagineum is an annual or biennial broadleaved weed. It has been widely introduced around the world as a garden plant and pasture species. Some of the major issues surrounding E. plantagineum include its ability to dominate pastures in its exotic range, toxicity to livestock and potential control issues including herbicide resistance. E. plantagineum has demonstrated herbicide resistance in Australia. E. plantagineum has shown the ability to flower and set seed up to Zone 2 or 3 in field trials. CFIA conducted public consultations on E. plantagineum using a document which included the PRA for E. plantagineum , management options and finally resulted in the decision to strictly prohibit the importation of Echium plantagineum into Canada. The recommendation was also made to regulate E. plantagineum as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Eriochloa villosa
English Common Name: Woolly cup grass
French Common Name: Ériochloé velue
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

As E. villosa is undergoing eradication efforts in Quebec, it is proposed that E. villosa remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Halogeton glomeratus
English Common Name: Halogeton
French Common Name: Halogeton
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

It is proposed that H. glomeratus remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Milium vernale
English Common Name: Spring Millet grass
French Common Name: Millet de printemps
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

M. vernale is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in the winter wheat growing areas of southern Canada. Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA , it is proposed to add this species as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Nassella trichotoma
English Common Name: Serrated tussock
French Common Name: Stipe à feuilles dentées
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: 1

As N. trichotoma is not yet present in Canada and a pest risk assessment has shown that it is a potential threat, it is proposed that N. trichotoma remain listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Paspalum dilatatum
English Common Name: Dallis grass
French Common Name: Paspale dilaté
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Peganum harmala
English Common Name: African-rue
French Common Name: Rue de Syrie, pégane, harmel
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Therefore, based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA , it is proposed that P. harmala be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Persicaria perfoliata
English Common Name: Devil’s-tail tearthumb (Mile-a-minute weed)
French Common Name: Renouée du Turkestan
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Persicaria perfoliata is an annual or perennial weed that is native to cool temperate regions of eastern Asia. This species reproduces by seed only. It is not considered an agricultural weed, but has caused economic damages and losses to trees and shrubs in orchards, nurseries, Christmas tree plantations (and potentially other commercial forest sites), and regeneration sites. The spiny, thicket-forming nature of P. perfoliata could also make natural areas unpleasant for tourists and thereby bring about reductions in the tourism industry in infested areas. Potential indirect economic impacts include cost of control to a variety of sectors, including seed or grain contamination. In the literature, this species is considered to be hardy to USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6.

Latin Name: Pueraria montana
English Common Name: Kudzu
French Common Name: Kudzu, vigne japonaise, vigne kudzu
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Although seed is not a major pathway for P. montana , the results of the pest risk assessment indicated that the prevention of P. montana should be stressed as it is very difficult to control once established. Well established stands of P. montana can take up to ten years to eliminate, and require persistent elimination of all root material.

Therefore, it is proposed that P. montana be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Senecio inaequidens
English Common Name: Narrow-leaved ragwort, South African ragwort
French Common Name: Sénéçon du Cap, sénéçon sud-africain
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Senecio inaequidens is a broadleaved, herbaceous short-lived perennial shrub. This species is not thought to be present or cultivated in Canada. This species is a prolific seed producer and is designated a federal noxious weed in the United States. S. inaequidens is considered likely to become weedy or invasive in parts of Canada, including southern and coastal British Columbia, extreme southern Ontario and parts of the Maritimes, if it were to be introduced. S. inaequidens contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are toxic to both livestock and humans. This species prefers warm, dry disturbed sites with well-drained soils. This species is considered a weed of crops and pastures in Europe. Herbicide resistance of S. inaequidens has been reported from Germany. Based on the results of the Weed Risk Assessment conducted by the CFIA , it is proposed that S. inaequidens be listed as a Prohibited Noxious weed.

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Latin Name: Solanum elaeagnifolium
English Common Name: Silverleaf nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle jaune, Morelle à feuilles de chalef
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Xanthium sibiricum
English Common Name: Siberian cocklebur
French Common Name: Lampourde
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Xanthium sibiricum is a member of the aster family whose habitat is farmlands, wastelands and crop fields. The main pathways of introduction for this species are as a seed and grain contaminant and through human mediated transport. X. sibiricum is not yet present in North America. The potential impacts of this species are not fully understood since the species is not present in NA ; however all Xanthium species that are present in NA are considered weeds. In China, this species damages cotton, pulses and other crops

As this species is not yet present in Canada and could affect the value and/or intended use of seed, then this species meets the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Zygophyllum fabago
English Common Name: Syrian bean-caper
French Common Name: Fabagelle, faux câprier
Proposed Classification: 1
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Zygophyllum fabago is a much-branched herbaceous plant with a deep, well-developed tap root which spreads primarily by seeds. This species can form large dense colonies that exclude native plants and animals. The thick, waxy leaves allow the plants to survive long periods of drought and the extensive root system provides a competitive advantage over native species. As Z. fabago can form dense masses that displace beneficial species on rangelands, this species` biggest economic threat is to ranchers. Control with herbicides is difficult because of the waxy leaf surfaces and extensive root system. The plants of this species are not palatable to livestock. Z. fabago is reported to be used as a medicinal herb. It is not known to occur in Canada. Z. fabago is not regulated as a federal noxious weed in the U.S. , but it is listed as a noxious weed in CA , ID , NV , OR and WA . The species is thought to have been imported to the U.S. in contaminated alfalfa seed.

Latin Name: Abutilon theophrasti
English Common Name: Velvetleaf
French Common Name: Abutilon
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Abutilon theophrasti is an annual herb of the mallow family which is native from the Mediterranean area to central Asia. A. theophrasti is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS and PE and spreads only by seed. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, one sample was found to contain A. theophrasti in 2005.

Latin Name: Acroptilon repens
English Common Name: Russian Knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée de Russie
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Latin Name: Alliaria petiolata
English Common Name: Garlic mustard
French Common Name: Alliaire officinale
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Amaranthus tubriculatus (Amaranthus rudis)
English Common Name: Tall water-hemp
French Common Name: Acnide tuberculé
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Ambrosia trifida
English Common Name: Giant ragweed
French Common Name: Grande herbe à poux
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

As A. trifida can be difficult to control and due to herbicide tolerance, it is proposed that A. trifida remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Ammi majus
English Common Name: Bishop’s weed
French Common Name: Ammi élevé, Ammi commun
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Ammi majus is a glabrous annual, biennial or perennial herb of the parsley family. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental, for the cut-flower trade, and is used medicinally as a source of xanthotoxin. It is toxic to mammals causing photosensitization. There have been no reports of A. majus in Canada; however, it may be sold as an ornamental in Ontario. It is unclear to what extent it may be present in Canada in cultivation. A. majus is reported as an agricultural weed in Europe, is reported as a principal weed in Argentina, a common weed in Morocco, Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and Iraq and an agricultural weed in the U.S. and Uruguay.

A. majus is not reported from Canada, although it may be present in cultivation. Its known distribution suggests it would find suitable climatic and ecological conditions in Canada. It is proposed that this species be listed as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Bassia scoparia
English Common Name: Kochia
French Common Name: Bassie à balais
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Bidens pilosa
English Common Name: Spanish needles, Hairy beggarticks
French Common Name: Herbe à aisuilles, bident poilu
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Bromus japonicus
English Common Name: Japanese brome
French Common Name: Renouée japonaise
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Bromus secalinus
English Common Name: Cheat
French Common Name: Brome faux-seigle, brome des seigles, brome sécalin
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Carduus nutans
English Common Name: Nodding thistle
French Common Name: Chardon penché
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Carduus nutans is an herbaceous biennial of the aster family and is native to Eurasia. This species reproduces only by seed which is dispersed by wind, water, wildlife and livestock. C. nutans is a restricted weed in Alberta and a quarantine weed in Australia and New Zealand. This species is considered widespread in Canada (BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , and NF ); however there is still a desire to control the spread as its presence can have significant impacts. C. nutans has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed on the WSO since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. nutans was not detected in samples of either domestic seed or imported seed.

As C. nutans is widespread and is not under official control, this species does not meet the definition of a Class 1 Prohibited Noxious weed species. Therefore, it is proposed to reclassify C. nutans as a Class 2 Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea diffuse
English Common Name: Diffuse Knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée diffuse
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

C. diffusa is not known to be present in Quebec or the Maritimes; therefore there is a desire to control the spread to these areas. In order to slow the spread, it is being proposed for reclassification as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea stoebe
English Common Name: Spotted knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurée maculée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

There is a desire to control the spread of C. stoebe ; therefore, it is proposed to reclassify the species as a Primary Noxious weed species. Since C. stoebe is present in Canada and is not under official control, it would no longer meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa
English Common Name: Square rose knapweed
French Common Name: Centaurea vigata var. squarrosa
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Conium maculatum
English Common Name: Poison hemlock
French Common Name: Ciguë maculée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Latin Name: Convolvulus arvensis
English Common Name: Field bindweed
French Common Name: Liseron des champs
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

It is proposed that it remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed on the WSO .

Latin Name: Datura stramonium
English Common Name: Jimsonweed
French Common Name: Stramoine commune
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Datura stramonium is an herbaceous annual of the nightshade family, is native to Asia, is poisonous to humans and livestock and reproduces only by seed. D. stramonium is a noxious weed in Manitoba and a quarantine weed in Australia and South Africa. D. stramonium no longer qualifies as a Prohibited Noxious weed species as it is present in BC , SK , ON , QC , NB , NS and PE and is not under official control. D. stramonium has been regulated as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1986. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, D. stramonium was not detected in samples of domestic or imported seed.

It is proposed that D. stramonium be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Euphorbia esula
English Common Name: Leafy spurge
French Common Name: Euphorbe ésule
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Although widespread in Canada, it is considered a serious weed whose dispersal through seed should be controlled. Therefore, it is proposed that E. esula be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Galega officinalis
English Common Name: Goat’s-rue
French Common Name: Galéga officinal
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Galega officinalis is a stout, erect, glabrous perennial herb. It has been grown for medicinal use, as a forage crop and as a honey plant. G. officinalis was introduced in North America as a medicinal herb and for forage crop trials. This species contains a poisonous alkaloid, galegin, which gives the plants a bitter taste, making them unpalatable to cattle and horses. G. officinalis has been reported to occur in localized areas in Ontario and Quebec. Plants of this species prefer stream banks and other moist areas in full sun. G. officinalis is listed as a federal noxious weed by the USDA and as noxious or quarantine weed in twelve states in the USA . The current range of this species suggests that plants can survive to NAPPFAST zone 5, which would include coastal, southern and interior BC , small areas of the Peace region of Alberta as well as parts of southern AB and SK , southern ON and QC and most of the Maritime Provinces.

As this species is present in Canada and is not under official control, it does not qualify as a Prohibited Noxious weed. It is therefore proposed to include G. officinalis as a Primary Noxious weed.

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Latin Name: Galium aparine
English Common Name: Cleavers
French Common Name: Gaillet gratteron
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Galium aparine is an annual herbaceous vine of the madder family and is a world-wide weed of uncertain origin. G. aparine is a common annual weed of cereal crops, canola and flax. It is impossible to mechanically separate G. aparine seed from canola seed and planting of contaminated canola seed is the primary method of spread. In cereal and flax crops, G. aparine reduces yields, causes lodging and interferes with harvesting operations. G. aparine spreads by seed only and is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , NF and NT . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, G. aparine was detected in 190 domestic seed samples, 7 imported seed samples and 24 unspecified samples. G. aparine has been regulated in Canada as a weed since 1960 when it was added to the WSO as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3). In 1986, G. aparine was reclassified within the WSO from a Secondary Noxious weed to a Primary Noxious weed, where it remains currently.

It is proposed that G. aparine remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Galium spurium
English Common Name: False cleavers
French Common Name: Gaillet bâtard
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Based on consultations to date and on the information above, it is proposed that G. spurium remains listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Galium verrucosum
English Common Name: Warty bedstraw
French Common Name: Gaillet à verrues
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Heracleum mantegazzianum
English Common Name: Giant hogweed
French Common Name: Berce de Caucase
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Impatiens glandulifera
English Common Name: Himalayan balsam
French Common Name: Impatiens de l’Himalaya
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Impatiens glandulifera is an annual succulent herb of which the seed capsules “explode” at maturity to release hundreds of tiny seeds. This species spreads only by seed. I. glandulifera is present in BC , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE and NF . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, I. glandulifera was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Knautia arvensis
English Common Name: Field scabious
French Common Name: Knautia arvensis
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Knautia arvensis is a tall, tap-rooted perennial that can produce up to 2000 seeds per plant, which may remain viable in the soil for many years. This rapidly spreading weed is very competitive with forage stands and native pastures. K. arvensis is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB and NF . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, K. arvensis was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Lepidium appelianum
English Common Name: Globe-pod hoary cress
French Common Name: Cranson velue
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Latin Name: Lythrum salicaria
English Common Name: Purple loosestrife
French Common Name: Salicaire commune
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Rationale:
Lythrum salicaria is a perennial herb or sub-shrub of the loosestrife family which is native to Eurasia. L. salicaria spreads by seed and asexually from roots. Detached root or stem fragments can also root and develop into flowering stems. This species is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE and NF . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, one sample in 2001 was found to contain L. salicaria . L. salicaria has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 2005 when it was added to the WSO as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Nicandra physalodes
English Common Name: Apple of Peru
French Common Name: Nicandre faux-coqueret
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Nicandra physalodes meets the definition of Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Phragmites australis
English Common Name: Common reed
French Common Name: Phramite
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Although P. australis qualifies as a potential primary noxious weed, there will always be confusion with the native subspecies which will make effective regulation difficult.

Latin Name: Polygonum cuspidatum Synonym: Fallopia japonica
English Common Name: Japanese knotweed
French Common Name: Renouée japonaise, renouée du Japon, liseron japonaise, persicaire cupidée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Raphanus raphanistrum
English Common Name: Wild radish
French Common Name: Radis sauvage
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Latin Name: Ricinus communis
English Common Name: Castor bean
French Common Name: Graine de ricin
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Ricinus communis exhibits various growth patterns (herb, shrub or tree) according to its climatic distribution. The toxicity of seeds is well documented and accidental ingestion of R. communis seeds has caused deaths in animals and humans. The toxin ricin is at its highest concentration in the seeds, but it is also found in the leaves. This species is indigenous to eastern Africa, and most probably originated in Ethiopia. It is widely naturalized in the tropics and warm regions of the world. A hard frost will terminate R. communis plants in USDA plant hardiness zones 2 to 7. In zones 8 to 11, castor can be treated as a perennial. Since only a small portion of British Columbia is in zone 8, there is little likelihood of R. communis behaving as a perennial in Canada. R. communis plants are common along stream banks, riverbeds, disturbed areas and can interfere with succession.

R. communis is strictly grown as an ornamental in Canada but is cultivated in other countries as industrial, vegetable or medicinal oil. Records of it in the Canadian nursery trade are from as early as 1827. R. communis is listed on 3 invasive weed lists in the southern U.S. In Canada, weediness and invasiveness issues will be limited by R. communis` intolerance to cold temperatures.

As R. communis seeds and plant parts are toxic to animals and humans, it is proposed this species be listed as Primary Noxious on the Weed Seeds Order.

Latin Name: Senecio jacobaea
English Common Name: Tansy ragwort
French Common Name: Sénéçon jacobée
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Latin Name: Setaria faberi
English Common Name: Giant foxtail
French Common Name: Sétaire géante
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

In order to help slow the spread of this species, it is proposed that S. faberi remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Silene vulgaris
English Common Name: Bladder campion
French Common Name: Silène enflé
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Latin Name: Silybum marianum
English Common Name: Milk thistle
French Common Name: Chardon-marie
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Sinapis arvensis
English Common Name: Wild mustard
French Common Name: Moutarde des champs
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 2

Latin Name: Solanum carolinense
English Common Name: Horse-nettle
French Common Name: Morelle de la Caroline
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

Rationale:
Solanum carolinense is a perennial herb of the nightshade family, is native to eastern North America and propagates by seed, horizontal root sprouts or by resprouting from root fragments. S. carolinense is a noxious weed in Manitoba and a quarantine weed in Australia, India and Russia. S. carolinense has been regulation as a Prohibited Noxious weed since 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. carolinense was not detected in samples of either domestic or imported seed. It has possibly reached the extent of its potential range in eastern Canada. As it is not under official control, S. carolinense does not meet the definition of a Prohibited Noxious weed species. It is proposed that S. carolinense be reclassified as a Primary Noxious weed species.

Latin Name: Soliva sessilis
English Common Name: Carpet burweed
French Common Name: Soliva sessile
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Sorghum halepense
English Common Name: Johnson grass
French Common Name: Sorgho d’Alep
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: 1

During consultations, stakeholders identified this species as difficult to control particularly in reduced tillage systems and an Invasive Alien Species concern. Stakeholders recommended listing Tripleurospermum maritimum subsp. inodorum as a Primary Noxious weed instead of a Secondary Noxious weed.

Latin Name: Vincetoxicum rossicum AND Vincetoxicum louiseae
English Common Name: Dog strangling vine and Black dog strangling vine
French Common Name: Vigne étrangle-chien, cynanque
Proposed Classification: 2
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Cirsium arvense
English Common Name: Canada thistle
French Common Name: Chardon des champs (chardon du Canada)
Proposed Classification: 2.5
Current Classification: 2.5

It is proposed that Cirsium arvense remain listed as a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 2 and 5).

Latin Name: Sonchus arvensis
English Common Name: Perennial sow thistle
French Common Name: Laiteron des champs
Proposed Classification: 2.5
Current Classification: 2.5

It is proposed that S. arvensis remain listed as both a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 2 and 5).

Latin Name: Amaranthus hybridus
English Common Name: Slim amaranth (Smooth amaranth)
French Common Name: Amaranthe hybride
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Amaranthus powelli
English Common Name: Powell’s amaranth
French Common Name: Amaranthe de Powell
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Amaranthus retroflexus
English Common Name: Redroot pigweed
French Common Name: Amarante à racine rouge
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Amaranthus retroflexus is an annual weed that grows in cultivated fields, pastures, roadside ditches, and undeveloped areas. It is a common annual weed which produces many seeds that remain viable for up to 5 years. This weed can be difficult to control in non-competitive crops like flax. This species spreads by seed only. A. retroflexus is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE , NF , NT and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, A. retroflexus was detected in 18 domestic seed samples, 5 imported seed samples and 3 seed samples of unspecified origin. A. retroflexus is known to have multiple herbicide resistances in MB , ON and QC .

See also  sweet cheese seeds

Latin Name: Ambrosia artemisiifolia
English Common Name: Common ragweed
French Common Name: Petite herbe à poux
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Anthemis cotula
English Common Name: Mayweed (stinking mayweed)
French Common Name: Camomille des chiens
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Avena fatua
English Common Name: Wild oat
French Common Name: Folle avoine
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Avena sterilis
English Common Name: Sterile oat
French Common Name: Avoine stérile
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Bromus tectorum
English Common Name: Downy brome
French Common Name: Brome des toits
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Chenopodium album
English Common Name: Lambsquarters
French Common Name: Chénopode blanc, chou gras
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Chenopodium album is one of the most abundant weeds of agronomic, horticultural, and vegetable crops. Its tall stature and high water consumption allow it to out compete crops and seriously reduce yield. This species spreads only by seed. C. album is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE , NF , YK , NT and NU. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. album was detected in 711 domestic seed samples, 41 imported seed samples and 137 seed samples of unspecified origin. C. album is known to have herbicide resistance in ON .

Latin Name: Erucastrum gallicum
English Common Name: Dog mustard
French Common Name: Moutarde des chiens
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Hordeum jubatum
English Common Name: Foxtail barley (Wild barley)
French Common Name: Orge agreeable, Queue d’écureuil, Orge sauvage
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Hordeum jubatum is a perennial plant that grows in tufts and is often found on the edges of alkaline sloughs and salt marshes. This species spreads primarily by seed, but can also spread by tillering once established. H. jubatum is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE , NF , NT and YK . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, H. jubatum was detected in 62 domestic seed samples, 4 imported seed samples and 11 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Lepidium campestre
English Common Name: Field peppergrass
French Common Name: Lépidie des champs
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Lolium persicum
English Common Name: Persian darnel
French Common Name: Ivraie de Perse
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Pastinaca sativa
English Common Name: Wild parsnip
French Common Name: Panais sauvage
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Pastinaca sativa is a member of the carrot family, a biennial and reproduces only by seed. P. sativa contains furocoumarins which can cause severe skin dermatitis when affected skin is exposed to sunlight or UV rays. P. sativa is present in throughout Canada and usually occurs in abandoned yards, waste places, meadows, old fields, roadsides and railway embankments.

Latin Name: Plantago lanceolata
English Common Name: Ribgrass
French Common Name: Plantagin lancéolé
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Prunella vulgaris
English Common Name: Heal-all
French Common Name: Prunelle vulgaire
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Latin Name: All Rumex species except R. maritimus & R. acetosella
English Common Name: Dock
French Common Name: Patience
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Silene noctiflora
English Common Name: Night-flowering catchfly
French Common Name: Silène noctiflore
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Silene noctiflora is a perennial herb of the pink family and is native to Eurasia. Seeds are very similar to those of crop clovers and are difficult to separate, so seed impurities have been an important source of dispersal. Ingested seeds survive passage through the digestive system of livestock. S. noctiflora is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE , NF and YK . S. noctiflora has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1905. It was listed as a Secondary Noxious weed (Class 3) on the WSO in 1960. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. noctiflora was detected in 530 domestic seed samples, 6 imported seed samples and 97 seed samples of unspecified origin.

Latin Name: Sisymbrium loeselii
English Common Name: Tall hedge mustard
French Common Name: Sisymbre élevé de Loesel
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 3

Latin Name: Solanum ptycanthum
English Common Name: Eastern black nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle noir de l’Est
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Solanum ptycanthum is an annual or, rarely, a short-lived perennial. Berries contain up to 100 seeds each and a single plant can easily produce up to 1000 berries. All parts of the plant are reputed to be poisonous; however, the green leaves, stems and seeds are especially toxic. Berries frequently become mixed with agricultural crops, which decreases their quality. This species spreads by seed only. S. ptycanthum is present in BC , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS and PE . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. ptycanthum was not detected in any domestic or imported seed samples. S. ptycanthum is known to have herbicide resistance in ON .

Latin Name: Solanum sarachoides ( Solanum physalifolium Rusby)
English Common Name: Hairy nightshade
French Common Name: Morelle poilue
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Rationale:
Solanum sarachoides is a common weed of disturbed habitats and cultivated fields. Berries frequently become mixed with agricultural crops, which decreases their quality. The plants produce a sticky substance that can clog agricultural equipment such as combine screens and rotors. This species spreads by seed only. S. sarachoides is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB and NS . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, S. sarachoides was not detected in domestic or imported seed samples.

Latin Name: Stellaria media
English Common Name: Chickweed, common
French Common Name: Mouron des oiseaux ou stellaire moyenne
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: 4.5

Latin Name: Vicia cracca
English Common Name: Tufted vetch
French Common Name: Vesque craque
Proposed Classification: 3
Current Classification: N/A

Latin Name: Elytrigia repens
English Common Name: Couch grass
French Common Name: Chiendent
Proposed Classification: 3.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Rationale:
Elytrigia repens is a perennial rhizomatous grass which is native to north Africa and Eurasia. E. repens , which is also known as Quackgrass, spreads mainly asexually from rhizomes but also by seed. E. repens is present throughout Canada. In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, E. repens was found in 75 domestic seed samples, 7 imported seed samples and 20 unspecified seed samples. E. repens is considered one of the most difficult or challenging species to control in organic production systems. E. repens has been regulated as a weed in Canada since 1960 when it was added as a Primary Noxious weed and a Noxious weed (Class 5), where it remains listed today.

Latin Name: Leucanthemum vulgare
English Common Name: Ox-eye daisy
French Common Name: Marguerite blanche
Proposed Classification: 3.5
Current Classification: 2.5

Latin Name: Camelina microcarpa
English Common Name: Little-pod false flax
French Common Name: Caméline à petits fruits
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Rationale:
Camelina microcarpa is an annual or biennial herb of the mustard family and is native to Eurasia. This species spreads only by seeds and is present in BC , AB , SK , MB , ON , QC , NB , NS , PE , NF and NT . In monitoring conducted between 2001 and 2007, C. microcarpa was detected in one seed sample of unspecified origin.

It is proposed that C. microcarpa be removed from the WSO .

Latin Name: Camelina sativa
English Common Name: Gold-of-Pleasure
French Common Name: Caméline
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

It is proposed that C. sativa be removed from the WSO .

Latin Name: Cichorium intybus
English Common Name: Chicory
French Common Name: Chicorée sauvage
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

C. intybus is also a crop cultivated in Canada and is listed in Table XX of Schedule I to the Seeds Regulations.

It is proposed that C. intybus be removed from the WSO .

Latin Name: Thlaspi arvense
English Common Name: Stinkweed
French Common Name: Tabouret des champs
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

It is proposed that Thlaspi arvense be removed from the WSO .

Latin Name: Vaccaria hispanica
English Common Name: Cow cockle
French Common Name: Saponaire de vaches
Proposed Classification: N/A
Current Classification: 3

Palmer amaranth a prohibited noxious weed seed

Seed for sale within South Dakota may not contain prohibited noxious weed seeds

PUBLISHED ON September 10, 2019

PIERRE, S.D. — As of September 2, 2019, palmer amaranth seed has been added to South Dakota’s list of prohibited noxious weed seeds. Seed for sale within South Dakota may not contain prohibited noxious weed seeds, including palmer amaranth, in any amount.

Prohibited noxious weed seeds are highly destructive and difficult to control. Other prohibited noxious weed seeds include Canada thistle, field bindweed, hoary cress, horse nettle, leafy spurge, perennial sowthistle, and Russian knapweed.

Also, as of September 2, restricted noxious weed seeds cannot exceed a cumulative total of 20 per pound of seed. Restricted noxious weed seeds are highly objectionable and difficult to control in specific crops, fields, lawns, and gardens. Restricted noxious weed seeds include annual bluegrass, dodder, field pennycress, giant foxtail, hedge bindweed, musk thistle, plumeless thistle, quackgrass, spotted knapweed, wild carrot, wild mustard, and wild oats.

Additionally, seed for sale from bluestems, gramas, Indiangrass, and prairie sandreed may not contain weed seed more than three percent by weight. Seed for sale other than these grasses may not contain weed seed more than one percent by weight.

The South Dakota Department of Agriculture encourages those buying seed to carefully examine the labels of their seed purchases and ask to see the official seed analysis report if a percentage of weed seed is listed. Doing so will help deter the spread of weeds in South Dakota.