Mysterious Cryptocoryne seeds
Crypt’s have been familiar plants in the aquaria keeping hobby for quite a while. Being categorized and brought over from Asia a little over a century ago, these mysterious plants can assume many different forms as the leaf shapes and colors which we see can be radically altered based on environmental conditions.
There are quite a few distinctly different species which have been identified so far. Occasionally, a mistake will be made and what was believed to be two separate species will turn out to be simply two versions of the same species grown in very different conditions. For this reason the best way to identify Cryptocorynes is by their flower, or spathe, which is unique in every species.
The spathe is a bisexual flower in that it contains both male and female parts. It takes the shape of a long slender tube or trumpet , with an opening in the top and occasionally a slight swelling at the base or the kettle where the female part resides.
Somewhere along the length of the trumpet the male pollen is located, it is believed that as an insect crawls through the trumpet it will pick up pollen which will then be carried down into the kettle of other crypts. Insect pollination is assumed based on the belief that the Cryptocoryne is self-sterile and will rarely boom while underwater. Occasionally when it does bloom underwater, the trumpet will reach up and out of the water creating a water tight tunnel accommodating a terrestrial insects path to the kettle.
Crypts are commonly propagated by vegetative means — growing daughter plants off a primary plant or division of the rooting mass — but there is very little information regarding true generative reproduction — the mixing of genes between two plants via pollination and the creation of seeds.
In the summer of 1997 in a fairly newly established aquarium two crypts simultaneously produced fertile seeds which were germinated and grown into healthy little baby crypts. The species is believed to be Cryptocoryne wendtii wendtii, because the two different producing crypts were both bought as wendtii, and because they seem to conform to the documented description of wendtii— although with the variability found among crypts we can only be sure when we catch it in bloom.
The aquarium was set-up approximately 4 months prior to the production of seeds. It is a 60-65 gallon custom made tank which is 20 inches deep. The tank was placed beside a large window facing North, and had four 20 watt aquarium grade bulbs on for a light duration of 8 hours 5 days a week, and 24 hours for the remaining two (lights left on over the weekend). I believe that getting two different plants blooming at the same time was due to the fact that there was enough sunlight to give seasonal queues.
The tank was filled with 50% old tank water from other tanks and 50% new water. The substrate was a medium size (2-4mm average) natural colored gravel which also contained bits of shell and other minerals which dissolved into the water bringing the PH up to about 7.8 and the hardness up to 80 ppm, from 40 ppm. The temperature was 25-26C and for filtration a HOT Magnum was used with Penn Plax Cleanwater instead of activated carbon. Sera Florenette was put into the substrate occasionally and water changes were done every 1-2 weeks, of 10%-25% of the water.
Fish included in this tank were; 3 true Siamese algae eaters, 3+ Otocinclus; 24+ cardinal tetras (plus a few other tetras); and 6 juvenile angelfish.
The other plants in the tank were Water Sprite, Aponogeton crispus, Anubias nana, Anubias gigantia, Amazon sword, Microsorum (Java fern), duckweed, and Pennywort.
I first noticed what looked like a four petaled flower on what I thought was a Crypt. however since crypts always send up an unmistakable spathe, I tried to identify some other possible plant it could be. I also tried to find out if there was some known crypt that sent up such an un-spathe-like flower. Neither possibility turned out to be the case when the flower was finally and correctly identified as being a seed pod.
I noticed the pod on July 10th, and took photo’s of it on the 14th. By the 21st, some seeds had dropped out and started sending up leaves. Some seeds still in the pod were also sending up leaves. At this time I also located a second seed pod which developed a little latter than the first one, and had 5 petals . A month or so later these two plants developed seeds again, and based on their development, the two pods were not formed at the same time (maybe a week off, as opposed to a few days off like the first time). The pods contained 6 and 8 petals this time, and the seeds were not fertile.
During the time I was germinating the seeds, I was fighting a loosing battle against Cyanobacteria (blue-green slime algae). I was concerned that changing too much of the water -in order to control the cyanobacteria — could cause a meltdown of the delicate crypt sprouts. Amazingly, the seeds which had dropped down onto the algae didn’t seem to be affected by it. They sent down roots and put upleaves which were not covered by the slime.
The first seed pods each dropped about 12 seeds. I let some seeds drop down in the tank, and two other batches I separated out to grow differently. One batch I grew in 1 of water with the original substrate and 2 20watt bulbs 15 away. These seedlings didn’t grow well and eventually rotted away. The second batch I kept in the original substrate and in the original tank inside a clear plastic cup, with a second cup inverted and covering the first. I made sure there was no visible algae in the cups, which I hoped would protect the seedlings in case a fish decided they were salad .
The seeds that just dropped and the ones in the cup all were fertile, and grew at a rate of about one new leaf and 3 mm length each week. After one month of growth the seeds in the cup were removed and planted in the original tank.
There are several interesting things about this propagation, primarily it is interesting that these crypts were never emersed, they were well under the water ever since the tank had been set-up 4 months previously. This means that either A) pollination took place underwater, and/or B) this particular Cryptocoryne is self-fertile (i.e. it can pollinate itself, or a plant produced as a vegetative offspring of itself). Another possibility suggested to me by a student of botany, is that I have an unusual mutation, which can happen when a plant has been vegetatively reproduced for several generations. Primarily these mutations simply weaken the existing plants genetic make-up, but occasionally a trait beneficial to the survival of the plant will occur.
In the case of A, pollination occurred via water currents, or possibly with the help of one of the algae eating fish which might have functioned much as a pollinating insect. A pollinating fish is quite unlikely, but at this point I want to include all the possibilities.
In the case of B, the fact that 2 different crypts bloomed and dropped fertile seeds at the exact same time is a doozy of a coincidence, and what happened was either that self-fertilization occurred in the spathe, or it was an incident of cleistogomy (the flower never opened, and as a result was self-fertilized).
It is unfortunate that I wasn’t watching this tank close enough to catch a possible blooming of the spathe, and that I do not know if the two propagating plants were vegetative offspring of the same parent plant or not. That information would point to a definite A, B, or possibly A and B, as well as giving a positive identification of the Cryptocoryne species. I hope to observe and document more of this particular plants reproduction in the future though, and may have an answer to these questions sometime soon!.
Heather Candelaria is now serving her second term on the GSAS board. She recently took over ownership of a local store. Stop by and say hi sometime.
Best Valheim seeds: a list of the best world seeds we've found
Searching for the best Valheim seeds in Valheim? In Valheim, every world is different from one another, generated procedurally from a starting seed. But not all worlds are created equal, as you’ll soon discover. This isn’t a problem since you’ll be able to control where you spawn using this guide.
Find the perfect starting place for your new adventures with our list of the best Valheim seeds we’ve found, covering everything from safety to danger, from Swamps to Mountains, and much more besides.
Best Valheim seeds list
So, what are Valheim seeds? Like many survival and exploration-based games, Valheim makes use of procedural generation to create different worlds every time you start a new game. The world is determined by your “seed”, which is a string of characters you can enter when you create a new world (if left alone, the game randomly generates a seed to create the world with).
Below you’ll find various different Valheim seeds, each of which offer a completely unique experience. To use a seed, just copy the “Seed” text of the world you want, and paste it into the seed input field just below your world name when creating a new world.
Here’s our list of the best Valheim seeds we’ve found:
Note: all maps were taken from the Valheim World Generator online tool created by “wd40bomber7”. I’ve included links to the tool below for each seed so you can check out each one in more detail.
#1: Safe Starting Island with nearby bosses
Beginners to Valheim will find this relatively safe starting seed quite welcome. A large Meadows biome gives you plenty of room to build and explore, but with such a large starting island you’ll still come across Swamps, Mountains, and Black Forests with enough exploring – and you’ll find that the Elder and Bonemass bosses aren’t too far away.
#2: All five Bosses nearby
These are dangerous lands filled with Mountains, Swamps, and Plains – but it’s well worth it. You can find every boss in the game on nearby islands, as well as a plethora of Trader spawn spots to choose from.
#3: Early Trader spawn
Beginning your journey next to a gigantic lake is a lovely way to start, and you’ll also find plenty of building space near spawn here. The seed also provides you with a forbidding Mountain to the south, alongside a gigantic Black Forest biome to get lost inside. And, perhaps best of all, Haldor the Trader can be found on the southernmost tip of the island.
#4: Massive Swamp & Bosses
Everything you need is to the west in this Valheim seed. Across the lake you’ll find a Trader startlingly near spawn. Next up is a massive swamp filled with Sunken Crypts for mining Iron; and across the water to the south-west you’ll find the Elder, Bonemass, and Moder ripe for the slaughtering.
#5: Twin Mountains
This Valheim seed is one of the best I’ve seen for PvP potential. Two islands dominate the centre of the map, and each island is dominated by a gigantic snow-capped Mountain. Imagine what it’d be like to have two mountain-based teams warring against one another on this challenging seed.
#6: Southern Swamp
The starting island of this seed is pockmarked by three giant lakes. The Elder is fairly nearby, and a gigantic swamp filled with Iron can be found a short swim to the south-east of the island.
#7: Follow The Path North
I recommend you do just what the title says with this seed: follow the path north. This island winds its way upwards and leads you to a spectacular triple-combo of Plains, Mountains, and Swamps ripe for the conquering. You’ll also find Bonemass waiting for you there.
#8: Giant Winding Island
Another particularly winding and snaking island will become your home if you pick this starting seed. You’ll start right next to the coast and a river, for easy access to Flint and Neck Meat. Bosses one to three are found on this starting island alone, so you won’t need to travel far for a long time.
#9: Giant Mountain Range
This Valheim seed generates a strangely linear island that stabs down to the south-east where you’ll find both Moder and Yagluth at the bottom. Following the island down you’ll find a gigantic mountain range that spans nearly half the island, towering over nearby Swampland.
#10: Limited Starting Island
For those after a more languorous journey, this seed plonks you down on a fairly small starting island, with just Meadow, Black Forest, and Mountains to keep you company. You’ll be forced to embrace the Viking ways and sail the open seas if you want to find the rarer biomes. At least Haldor the Trader isn’t too terribly far away.
That’s as good a point as any to wrap up this Valheim seeds list. While you’re here, you may want to learn more about what each world has to offer by consulting our Valheim map and biomes guide.
- Coffee Stain Publishing
- Iron Gate AB
About the Author
Ollie is known round these parts for having just about the deepest voice in existence. Some say he used to be pretty darn good at Rocket League, but he has since sacrificed that accolade in order to become passably decent at Apex Legends. His favourite pastimes include playing piano covers of his favourite game soundtracks, and burying his face in the warm fur of his two cats.
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