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jimmy weed leave seed

Jimmy weed leave seed

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Crop and Soil Environmental News, April 2004

About Jimsonweed

Jimsonweed – (Datura stramonium L.)

  • 3 mm long in
  • kidney-shaped, with pitted surface, slightly wrinkled, flatened
  • similar to velvetleaf seed but not as deeply lobed
  • dull dark brown to black

Seed capsule covered with stiff prickles

Leaf shape and arrangement Leaf: Very angular, large, smooth (no hair), thin, wavy, coarsely toothed (jagged lobes) about 3 to 8 inches long, leaf margins resembles those of oak leaves, leaves on long stout petioles

Stolon/rhizome/roots No stolon or rhizome; stem stout, branched and green to purple in color; thick, shallow and extensively branched taproot system

Inflorecence Flowers are large and trumpet or funnel-shaped (tubular), white to pinkish, borne singly on short stalks in the axils of branches, are attractive and fragrant; fruit are a spiny egg-shaped capsule covered with short, sharp spines; when the fruit is ripe the pods burst open splitting into 4 segments and scatter numerous poisonous black, kidney-shaped seeds.

Jimsonweed – (Datura stramonium L., Synonyms:Datura tatula L.)

Other common names: Jamison-weed, jamestown-weed, jamestown lily, thorn-apple, stinkwort, stinkweed, mad-apple, trumpet plant, loco weed, angel’s trumpet, devil’s, fireweed, dewtry, apple of Peru

Warm-season, summer annual

  • Native to Asia
  • Found almost everywhere in the US. except in the North and West; most common in the south.
  • Waste ground and cultivated land, preferring nitrogen-enriched habitats
  • Is a member of the nightshade family which includes potatoes and tomatoes.
  • Is herbaceous, annual plant that grows up to 3-5 feet tall and even taller in rich soil.
  • Reproduce by seed.
  • Dead leafless stem with dry seed remains standing in the field.
  • Primarily a weed of agronomic crops but also found in disturbed areas, along roadsides, old fields, pastures, barnyards, hog lots, waste places, and in gardens.
  • Jimsonweed is a poisonous plant; all parts of the plant are toxic; however, the seeds, fruit, and leaves contain the highest level of alkaloids and are the usual source of poisoning in humans, cattle, goats, horses, poultry, sheep, and swine. Poisoning of humans in recent years has been more frequent than livestock poisoning. Human poisoning results from sucking the nectar from flowers or consuming the seeds. Due to Jimsonweed’s strong unpleasant odor and taste animals avoid grazing it unless other more desirable forage species are not available.
  • Alkaloids are related to those found in magic mushrooms, however, magic mushrooms do not cause death even if consumed in a large quantity.
  • The plant contains tropane alkaloids, which affects the central nervous system, with the major alkaloids being atropine and scopolamine.
  • Symptoms associated with jimsonweed include blurred vision, confusion, agitation, and combative behavior
  • Jimsonweed has been used by Native Americans and others for drug-induced ceremonial and spiritual purposes.
  • Jimsonweed is also called Jamestown weed for two reasons: for the town in Virginia where jimsonweed is believed to have been imported to the US from England; In 1676 a massive poisoning of soldiers (by eating the plant in salads) in Jamestown, VA occurred, giving rise to the common name “Jamestown weed” and “jimsonweed”).
  • The seeds and leaves are deliberately used to induce intoxication.
  • Atropine, a substance in Jimsonweed has been used in treating Parkinson’s disease, peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and bronchial asthma.
  • In 1968, the use of Jimsonweed as a hallucinogenic drug prompted the US government to ban over-the-counter sales of products prepared from it.

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National Drug Intelligence Center 8201 Greensboro Drive, Suite 1001 McLean, VA 22102-3840 http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs/579/#Addresses

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Uva, R. H., J. C. Neal, and J. M. DiTomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. p. 312-313. Cornell University Press. Ithaca, New York.

Jimmy weed leave seed

Jimsonweed
Datura stramonium
Nightshade family (Solanaceae)

Description: This plant is a summer annual about 3-5′ tall that branches dichotomously. The stems are green or purple and largely hairless, although young stems often have conspicuous hairs. The alternate leaves are up to 8″ long and 6″ across (excluding the petioles). They are ovate or ovate-cordate in outline, but pinnately lobed. These lobes are somewhat shallow and pointed at their tips; there are usually 2-3 of these lobes on each side of the leaf blade. The margin of each leaf may have a few secondary lobes or coarse dentate teeth, otherwise it is smooth or slightly undulate. The leaves may be slightly pubescent when young, but become hairless with age; the upper surface of each leaf is often dark green and dull. The foliage of Jimsonweed exudes a bitter rank odor.

Individual flowers occur where the stems branch dichotomously; the upper stems also terminate in individual flowers. The funnelform corolla of each flower is up to 5″ long and 2″ across when fully open; its outer rim has 5 shallow lobes. Each of these lobes forms an acute point in the middle.The corolla is white or pale violet throughout, except at the throat of the flower, where thick veins of dark violet occur. The light green calyx is shorter than the corolla and conspicuously divided along its length by 5 membranous wings. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall and lasts about 2 months. The flowers usually don’t open up until midnight and close early in the morning; less often, the flowers may bloom toward the middle of the day, especially when it is cloudy. Individual flowers last only a single day. Each flower is replaced by a hard fruit that is dry and spiny; it is about 1�” long, 1″ across, and spheroid-ovoid in shape. Underneath each fruit is a truncated remnant of the calyx that curves sharply downward. These fruits are initially green, but become brown with maturity; they divide into 4 segments to release the seeds. The large seeds are dull, irregular, and dark-colored; their surface may be pitted or slightly reticulated. The root system consists of taproot that is shallow for the size of the plant; it branches frequently. Jimsonweed spreads by reseeding itself.

Cultivation: The preference is full or partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and a rich fertile soil with high nitrogen content. This type of soil is necessary to supply the nutrients that are required by the prodigious growth of this annual plant. The foliage is often pitted by tiny holes that are made by flea beetles (the same or similar species that attack eggplant). The seeds can remain viable in the ground for several years.

Range & Habitat: Jimsonweed is a fairly common plant that has been observed in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It is probably adventive from tropical America and it was first observed in the United States at the Jamestown colony during the 17th century. Typical habitats include cropland (particularly corn fields), fallow fields, old feed lots, piles of soil at construction sites, mounds of decomposed mulch and discarded vegetation, urban vacant lots, and miscellaneous waste areas. Disturbed areas with open fertile soil are strongly preferred.

Faunal Associations: The flowers are cross-pollinated by nectar-seeking Sphinx moths. Various species of beetles are attracted by the flowers, especially at night, where they steal nectar and chomp on the pollen. The foliage and other parts of Jimsonweed are a source of food for several flea beetles ( Epitrix spp. ), Three-lined Potato Beetle ( Lema daturaphila ), Colorado Potato Beetle ( Leptinotarsa decemlineata ), Clavate Tortoise Beetle ( Plagiometriona clavata ), and larvae of the Pink-spotted Hawk Moth ( Agrius cingulata ); see Clark et al. (2004) and Covell (1984/2005). The foliage and seeds contain an impressive assortment of toxic alkaloids that can be fatal to mammalian herbivores and humans. Some of these alkaloids are mildly narcotic and hallucinogenic. The immature seeds are especially poisonous; as few as 20 seeds can fatally poison a child. It is doubtful that birds make any use of these toxic seeds. Humans help to spread the seeds around through activities that are related to agriculture, construction, and landscaping.

Photographic Location: Near piles of soil at a vacant lot in Champaign, Illinois. These piles of soil were dumped and occasionally carried off by trucks in relation to off-site construction and landscaping activities.

Comments: The common name ‘Jimsonweed’ is probably a corruption of ‘Jamestown Weed,’ referring to where this species was first observed in North America. Another common name that is often used for this species is ‘Thornapple.’ Two varieties of Jimsonweed have been described. The typical variety has green stems and white flowers, while var. tatula has purple stems and either pale violet or purple-striped flowers. Jimsonweed has a distinct appearance, making it easy to identify.

The only other Datura spp. in Illinois, Datura wrightii (Angel’s Trumpet), rarely naturalizes in the wild. It is sometimes cultivated in flower gardens because of its attractive flowers. Angel’s Trumpet is a hairier plant with unlobed leaves and larger flowers. The corolla of its flowers ranges from 5-8″ in length, while the corolla of Jimsonweed’s flowers is about 3–5″ in length. Both of these Datura spp. have flowers that bloom during the night. Another species in the Nightshade family, Nicandra physalodes (Shoofly Plant), also rarely naturalizes in the wild. The Shoofly Plant has foliage that is similar to Jimsonweed, but its funnelform flowers are much smaller (less than 1�” long and across). Unlike Jimsonweed, the flowers of Shoofly Plant are strictly diurnal.

Jimson Weed

Angel Tulip, Chasse-Taupe, Datura, Datura inermis, Datura lurida, Datura Officinal, Datura Parviflora, Datura stramonium, Datura tatula, Devil's Apple, Devil's Trumpet, Endormeuse, Estramonio, Herbe du Diable, Herbe aux Magiciens, Herbe aux Sorciers, Herbe aux Taupes, Higuera del Diablo, Jamestown Weed, Locoweed, Mad-apple, Man Tao Luo, Nightshade, Peru-apple, Pomme Épineuse, Pomme Poison, Pommette Féroce, Stinkweed, Stinkwort, Stramoine, Stramoine Commune, Stramonium, Thorn-apple, Trompette des Anges, Trompette de la Mort, Yiang Jin Hua.

Overview

Jimson weed is a plant. The leaves and seeds are used to make medicine.

Despite serious safety concerns, jimson weed is used to treat asthma, cough, flu (influenza), swine flu, and nerve diseases.

Some people use it as a recreational drug to cause hallucinations and a heightened sense of well-being (euphoria).

How does it work?

Jimson weed contains chemicals such as atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine. These chemicals interfere with one of the chemical messengers (acetylcholine) in the brain and nerves.

QUESTION

Uses & Effectiveness

Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for.
  • Asthma.
  • Cough.
  • Nerve diseases.
  • Causing hallucinations and elevated mood (euphoria).
  • Other conditions.

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate (detailed description of each of the ratings).

Side Effects

Jimson weed is UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled. It is poisonous and can cause many toxic effects including dry mouth and extreme thirst, vision problems, nausea and vomiting, fast heart rate, hallucinations, high temperature, seizures, confusion, loss of consciousness, breathing problems, and death. The deadly dose for adults is 15-100 grams of leaf or 15-25 grams of the seeds.

SLIDESHOW

Special Precautions & Warnings

Children: Jimson weed is UNSAFE when taken by mouth or inhaled by children. They are more sensitive than adults to the toxic effects of jimson weed. Even a small amount can kill them.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Jimson weed is UNSAFE for both mother and child when taken by mouth or inhaled.

Congestive heart failure (CHF): Jimson weed might cause rapid heartbeat and make CHF worse.

Constipation: Jimson weed might cause constipation.

Down syndrome: People with Down syndrome might be especially sensitive to the dangerous side effects of jimson weed.

Seizures: Jimson weed can cause seizures. Do not use jimson weed if you suffer from frequent seizures.

Esophageal reflux: In esophageal reflux, food and liquid in the stomach leak backwards into the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach (esophagus). Jimson weed might make this condition worse because it slows down the process that empties the stomach. It also lowers the pressure in the bottom of the esophagus, making it more likely that stomach contents will go back up.

Fever: Jimson weed might make fever worse.

Stomach ulcer: Jimson weed might delay stomach emptying and make ulcers worse.

Stomach and intestinal infections: Jimson weed might slow down the emptying of the stomach and intestines. As a result, “bad” bacteria and the toxins they produce could remain in the digestive tract longer than usual. This could make infections caused by these bacteria worse.

Hiatal hernia: Hiatal hernia is a condition in which part of the stomach is pushed up into the chest through a hole or tear in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is the muscle that separates the chest space from the stomach space. Taking jimson weed might make hiatal hernia worse. It can slow down the process that empties the stomach.

Glaucoma: Glaucoma is an eye disease. It raises the pressure inside the eye and can lead to blindness, if it isn’t treated. Jimson weed is especially dangerous for people with glaucoma because it might raise the pressure inside the eye even more.

Obstructive digestive tract disorders, including atony, paralytic ileus, and stenosis: Jimson weed might make these conditions worse.

Rapid heartbeat: Jimson weed might make this condition worse.

Toxic megacolon: In this life-threatening condition, the large intestine (colon) suddenly becomes extra wide because of an infection or other intestinal disorder. Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.

Ulcerative colitis: This is an inflammatory bowel disorder that affects the large intestine. Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.

Difficulty passing urine (urinary retention): Taking jimson weed might make this condition worse.

Interactions

Jimson weed contains chemicals that cause a drying effect. It also affects the brain and heart. Drying medications called anticholinergic drugs can also cause these effects. Taking jimson weed and drying medications together might cause side effects including dry skin, dizziness, low blood pressure, fast heartbeat, and other serious side effects.

Some of these drying medications include atropine, scopolamine, and some medications used for allergies (antihistamines), and for depression (antidepressants).

Dosing

The appropriate dose of jimson weed depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for jimson weed. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.

Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration

You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit the FDA MedWatch website or call 1-800-FDA-1088.

Health Solutions From Our Sponsors

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