Nowthis weed seeds
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I like to watch nature and see how I can fit in. I don’t have much luck trying to make nature fit my schedules. Everybody wants to know – When is the best time to plant? I always try to do what the particular species’ ancestors are doing. The way I got my best stand of bluebonnets was to cast seed out onto the ground in late June when all the other bluebonnets were going to seed. That is what I mean about trying to fit in. I did not freeze, soak or poke the seeds. They sat out on the ground all summer and germinated when they were ready in the fall. Winter cool weather doesn’t harm native wildflower plants (see photo above right). Now, this may sound too easy for most people. So, you may want more detailed instructions.
FALL IS THE TIME. . . First, you must evaluate and inventory what plants are currently on your site. Cool season grasses or legumes are not compatible. Ryes and fescues will crowd out your wildflower seedlings and completely dominate in early spring. These cool season plants must be eliminated or you might just consider choosing another site. These grasses can be killed out by simply exposing their roots to the dry air by tilling. If you have warm season grasses, scalp them and remove the thatch
The most important aspect is to have the seed contact the soil by whatever means it takes to get the job done. Small sites can be hand raked to expose bare soil. Larger sites can be prepared by a tractor and various implements – discs or harrows. A very "weedy" site might need a light plowing or discing or tilling. Wait two or three weeks and notice how many more dormant weed seeds might have germinated and till again. The least soil disturbance, the better.
Certain noxious weeds, such as Johnsongrass, can be a big problem. Just ask most any farmer and he will tell you to spray it with herbicides. This is where you must decide if using chemicals to restore the environment is right for you. Life is full of such duality. Plenty of information is out there if you chose the chemical route. County agents have college degrees in the use of chemicals
One thing I have noticed in my work is that introducing large numbers of native seeds into a weedy area provides some pretty tough competition for the weeds. In one field I planted a mix of eleven native wildflowers and buffalograss. This field had a history of cockleburrs, sunflowers and Johnsongrass. The first year the cockleburrs and sunflowers never even returned. I am still fighting with the Johnsongrass, but it is definitely declining now after three years. Heavier seeding rates will work to your benefit.
Another useful idea for those who have flail mowers is to lower the blades to actually scalp the soil. This does a good job of removing vegetation and exposing the soil without plowing. Remember, walk lightly on the Earth. The least amount of soil disturbance will have the most favorable results. If possible a roller, packer or a light drag or rake should follow the seeding to press the seed into the soil or lightly cover the soil. Most seeds should never be buried more than twice their diameter. Do not bury small seeds!
As you can see, the actual seeding methods are many and varied. We have some wildflower patches with Buffalograss beneath that we mow only two times per year. We never water our fields. We figure our kids will need the water for cooking and bathing when they grow up. It is about time we start doing this in town, don’t you think? Just because these are native plants doesn’t mean that a little tender, gentle care wouldn’t go a long way to guaranteeing your success. These plants do fine in nature without any preparation but can you imagine how many seeds that may have been lying there for how many years with constant replenishment that it takes to make every acre of meadow and prairie? If only we had studied nature instead of studying books. Did you ever think about what happens to a book if you put it out in nature?
Legalisation of cannabis in Germany – users can rejoice
Legalisation of cannabis is knocking on Germany’s door. First the medicinal marijuana market and now this. Are you curious how this will turn out?
The legalisation of cannabis in Germany has been an issue since the October elections, when the new coalition was negotiating the next government. After the coalition agreement was reached, it was confirmed that the intention to legalise weed is no longer just a dream.
The subject will mainly be to regulate the sale of cannabis in licensed adult shops. After four years, a review of the law would then come to examine the social impact. The new government will also push for an extension of drug control powers, the associated reduction of potential harm and, finally, a tightening of the rules on the marketing of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis.
No further information has been made public.
While the new coalition government supports cannabis reform, it does not guarantee an easy path to legalisation. There is, however, considerable progress. The new government shows that legalisation of cannabis can bring some good and hopes for a good future. The former government under Angela Merkel’s conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU) opposed legalisation.
What happens next?
According to Prohibition Partners, a market research agency, the government will only control the Bundestag and will certainly need the approval of the Bundesrat, the other chamber of the German government.
“Past attempts at trial legalisation of cannabis, such as in Berlin in 2016, have been blocked by federal regulators on the basis that changes to Germany’s Narcotics Act require majority support from both of these government chambers,” according to a blog post last week. “Currently, the Bundesrat is dominated by conservative interests, although supporters hope that will change in the next year or two as the dominance of Angela Merkel’s CDU in the German states diminishes.”
The agency said the specifications of the legalisation plans will also be key in determining the nature of the newly legal adult-use cannabis market. However, this will not be the first legal market. Take medical cannabis, for example. Since 2017, when this type of cannabis was legalised, Germany has become Europe’s largest market.
Germany’s legalisation plan could be the first in the European Union, along with Luxembourg, which has plans to amend cannabis legalisation.
Legalisation of cannabis – what will be the impact?
It is not yet known what exactly might happen in the social spheres, but the economic aspect already looks very promising from mere estimates.
Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE) at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf for the German Hemp Association (DHV) have calculated how much Germany would earn from legalising cannabis and how much it would save on certain things. It is a staggering €4.7 billion. That’s a very large sum indeed. The biggest financial benefit would be from the cannabis tax, exactly €1.8 billion.
What is also great is that with legalisation comes a large number of jobs. It will be more than 27 000 people.
Hooray, finally something is starting to happen in the EU which could spur other member states on. We’ll see what time brings. But we expect that it will be 1-2 years before legalization really takes off in Germany. But certainly the Nukaseeds offer will stand out on the German market once everything is legal.
Mid-summer Weed Control Tips
About this time every summer weeds begin to drive us crazy; they love the heat of mid-summer! Here are some tips to help maintain your sanity and create the best long-term strategy to minimize weeds in your landscape.
Even though weeds are most problematic now, this is one of the worst times of year to get good control. Weeds don’t translocate herbicides into their roots well at this time of year, which limits effectiveness. In mid summer when a systemic herbicide is used, it often kills only the weeds leaves, but not the crown or roots. So they quickly recover and grow back.
There are four main weed groups – summer annuals, winter annuals, perennial broadleaf weeds and, in a class of its own, yellow nutsedge. Each has specific timing, strategies and methods to follow for the fewest headaches on your part and the best control. We’ll discuss them below in the order you should use to attack them from now through fall.
Yellow Nutsedge Control
Long term control of this weed is difficult for two reasons. First, each plant is perennial – it will grow back for many years if not killed. Secondly, each develops multiple little tubers on its root system, as many as 15 per plant, so if you kill the original parent plant several of the dormant tubers will grow back in its place. Where you had one plant, now you have 5.
The best strategy is to kill the new young plants before they have matured enough to develop tubers on their roots. Yellow nutsedge responds to day length; plants are triggered by long days to begin forming tubers. This year the longest day is June 21, so mature yellow nutsedge plants will soon begin forming new tubers.
After June 21st, many gardeners are told it’s too late to control nutsedge, but that’s not true. You can still kill individual plants, but realize those mature plants have already formed tubers. When you kill the original parent plant, several new young plants will take its place. Don’t think one application of herbicide will end the problem; continue to make additional applications whenever new plants emerge and kill them before these new young plants can form their own tubers. Eventually repeated applications will provide control. Sedgehammer is the most effective product and is available at many garden centers.
Sedge Ender, made by Bonide, is another good nutsedge control product. It contains sulfentrazone which provides some pre-emergence control of the dormant tubers. When they start to germinate and grow, the chemical kills them. Again, you should be able to find this at garden centers with a good chemical selection.
Gardeners can use both Sedgehammer and Sedge Ender together. Hit the existing plants first with Sedgehammer to kill them. Then apply an application of Sedge Ender to kill tubers that might begin germinating. Plan to work at controlling this weed for several years, so you won’t be discouraged. Just keep going after them.
If you don’t want to use herbicides, you can achieve the same goal by hand-pulling plants. Just make sure you are consistently killing new plants as soon as they emerge, before they have time to develop new tubers. Eventually you will reduce the number of tubers in the soil and the problem will decrease. Repeated applications and consistency are the keys to long term control.
Summer Annual Weed Control
Preemergent herbicides are commonly applied in spring to kill weed seeds as they germinate, targeting common annual weeds such as crabgrass, foxtail, knotweed and spurge. Typically, the spring application is made in the last week of April or first week of May.
However, weed seed doesn’t just germinate in spring, it continues to germinate all summer long. A second application is necessary in mid-summer to provide continued weed control after your spring preemergent is gone.
Each preemergent herbicide has a specific residual period based on the active ingredient and product formulation. Time your second application based on the product you used.
- Prodiamine (Barricade) – 16 weeks
- Dithipyr (Dimension) – 9 weeks
- Pendimethalin (Pendulum) – 8 weeks
Do not apply more than the maximum seasonal rate of any preemergent herbicide, as specified on the product label. Fall control of annual weeds is unnecessary and wasteful. These weeds only live for one summer and naturally die in fall.
Lifecycle of Perennial, Biennial and Winter Annual Weeds
Fall is the best time of year to control perennial, biennial and winter annual weeds. Did you have pretty purple blooming henbit back in March and April? Or dandelions that popped out with the first warm days in May? Fall is the best time of year to control troublesome weeds for several reasons.
- Perennial weeds, like dandelions, ground ivy, poison ivy, field bindweed, curly dock and Canada thistle, begin moving carbohydrates from the leaves down to the roots for winter storage. If herbicides are applied in fall, they are transported to the roots along with the carbohydrates killing the entire plant instead of just the leaves. And even if the chemical doesn’t completely kill the weed, the plant goes into winter in a weakened condition and is much more susceptible to winter kill.
- Biennial weeds, like musk thistle, grow into a small flat rosette of foliage their first year of growth. These rosettes are the ideal stage for herbicide control in fall.
- Winter annual weeds, such as henbit, marestail and the mustards (field pennycress, shepherds purse, tansy mustard, blue Mustard, etc.) germinate in the fall, overwinter as a small rosette of foliage, and begin growing again very early next spring. In fall they can be killed as they germinate with pre-emergent herbicides or targeted as young plants with post emergent products.
Perennial & Biennial Weed Control
Start your control of perennial and biennial weeds in early September and continue through mid-October. Many products are available for broadleaf weed control. Look for products containing the active ingredients 2,4-D, carfentrazone, sulfentrazone, quinclorac or triclopyr. These products are selective and won’t damage grass, but use them with caution in landscape beds since accidental spraying or spray drift can damage shrubs and ornamental plants. Quinclorac is particularly effective at controlling wild violets.
Consider adding a spreader-sticker to your tank mix for even better control. Spreader-stickers are additives that help the chemical you apply spread over the weed leaf surface and adhere to it better. When you’re trying to control weeds with waxy leaf surfaces, like wild violets, a spreader-sticker is particularly helpful. Look for products like Earl May’s Turbo Spreader Sticker.
When targeting difficult weeds, don’t expect 100% control with one herbicide application. Two or three herbicide applications, 2-3 weeks apart will usually be necessary to control them. Make your first application and, if in 2-3 weeks there is regrowth or green leaves still remaining on the plants, make a second application.
After making the herbicide application, don’t mow for 2-3 days to allow the plants to take in the chemical.
Winter Annual Weed Control
If winter annual weeds, such as henbit, chickweed, and annual bluegrass, are a problem in your buffalograss lawn, a fall pre-emergent herbicide application should be made in early September.
Barricade (prodiamine), Dimension (dithiopyr) and Pendulum (pendimethalin) are commonly available home-use pre-emergent products labeled for use in turf or landscape plantings. Check the product’s active ingredient statement on the front of the label for these chemicals to make sure you are using the correct herbicide.
If you miss the application of pre-emergent, then a post emergent application in mid-October will kill many newly germinated winter annual weeds and prevent them from becoming a problem next spring.
Identify Weeds First
Before applying any herbicide, know the weeds you are trying to control. Get help from your local garden center or Nebraska Extension office if you’re not sure.