Western Integrated Pest Management Center
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Being Selective in IPM: Novel Research to Reduce Risk and Advance Integration of Chemical and Biological Control
Isadora Bordini, University of Arizona
This proposal will develop new scientific information about the effects of numerous available cotton insecticides on non-target arthropods, including key predators critical to biological control in Arizona and California cotton. In addition, we will compile information on other non-target risks of these insecticides from available toxicological and risk assessment data, including risks to aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, mammals, pollinators, and humans. After completion of this project, results will be used to update pest management guidelines for cotton in Arizona and California. This information will empower growers to choose insecticides based on safety to natural enemies, avoiding options that are disruptive to biological control and that result in additional sprays and economic losses. Our evidence suggests a high probability of future grower adoption of revised guidelines, and we estimate potential economic gains to cotton growers across both states at around $9 to $16 million per year.
Enhancing Biological Control of Citrus Sooty Mold Complex with Novel Ant Control Technology Using Entomopathogenic Nematode Water-Storing Hydrogels in an IPM Approach
Jia-Wei Tay, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Big-headed ants, Pheidole megacephala, are invasive ants that form a mutualistic relationship with phloem-feeding insect pests, which increases the probability of sooty mold disease affecting a wide range of agricultural crops. Broad-spectrum insecticide or fungicide applications provide poor control and result in negative impacts on human and environmental health. This project proposes a reduced-risk or biological-based integrated pest management approach utilizing entomopathogenic nematodes, natural enemies of many soil insects. We propose using a biodegradable alginate hydrogel to deliver high-moisture liquid sucrose bait by lacing it with entomopathogenic nematodes or boric acid as an “attract and kill” system to manage ant populations and reduce sooty mold.
Powdery Mildew Risk Associated with Hemp Production in the Pacific Northwest
Cynthia Ocamb, Oregon State University
This project will collect critical baseline data to understand the risk of powdery mildew occurrence on hemp and the IPM implications for both hemp and hop. Both hop and hemp can develop powdery mildew but the two fungi responsible have been thought to be uniquely pathogenic on their respective hosts: Golovinomyces spp. in hemp and Podosphaera macularis in hop. However, in 2019 and 2020 we found natural infection of hemp by P. macularis in western Oregon. Given the expansion of hemp production in the Pacific Northwest, also the center of U.S. hop production, the occurrence of the hop powdery mildew fungus on hemp has profound management implications for both crops. This project will:
- Quantify when, where, and to what extent powdery mildew occurs on hemp;
- Characterize the virulence and putative origin of the hop powdery mildew fungus on hemp to inform disease risk assessment and quarantine policies;
- Evaluate hemp lines for susceptibility to powdery mildew; and
- Broadly communicate results to stakeholders
Developing Augmentative Biocontrol Programs for Northwest Tree Fruit
Rebecca Schmidt-Jeffris, USDA-ARS Wapato, Washington
Apple and pear growers in the Pacific Northwest are experimenting with releasing natural enemies purchased from commercial insectaries. These releases typically target aphids, mealybugs, and pear psylla. Organic control options for these pests is limited and conventional orchardists struggle with pesticide resistance and obtaining adequate chemical coverage. Unfortunately, release recommendations are typically based on greenhouse use, in crops with small canopies, or in environments with higher humidity and lower temperatures than the unique arid tree fruit growing region of the PNW. Therefore, there is a need for scientifically based recommendations on best natural enemy choices, release rates, timings, and methods of delivery that are appropriate for these crop systems. This will need to be the work of a large-scale, multiyear project. The goal of the proposed project is to gather preliminary data with the long-term goal of increasing adoption and success of natural enemy releases for pest management in tree fruit.
Exploration of Native Entomopathogenic Nematodes Associated with Sod Webworm in Oregon Grass Seed Production
Navneet Kaur, Oregon State University
Oregon is the leading grass-seed-producing state in the nation, with over 400,000 acres in production annually. Grass seed growers have identified the sod webworm, also known as cranberry girdler, as the most problematic insect pest issue. This pest has a relatively wide host range, is persistent and inflicts damage across multiple grass seed species. A limited number of insecticides are currently available, so alternative methods, including biological control agents such as entomopathogenic nematodes are needed. The objectives of this project are to conduct area-wide surveys in the commercial grass seed production systems to determine the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematode species in western Oregon, identify the isolated entomopathogenic nematodes using molecular techniques and maintain lab cultures for infectivity tests, and conduct infectivity trials using species identified during the survey and comparing their efficacy to the commercially available entomopathogenic nematode-based products against sod webworm under laboratory conditions.
Developing Effective Control Strategies for Rat-Tail Fescue in Pacific Northwest Prairies
Sarah Hamman, Ecostudies Institute, Olympia Washington
Rat-tail fescue (Vulpia myuros) is a non-native, cool-season annual grass that poses an increasing threat to native grasslands along the Pacific Coast. Similar to other early season annual grasses, V. myuros thrives on disturbance (including fire) and can displace native species through direct competition, allelopathic compounds and by forming a dense thatch layer which impedes the establishment of native plants. Grass-specific herbicides have not been effective in controlling V. myuros but preliminary trials suggest that vinegar may be a viable alternative, particularly in post-burn areas where thatch is limited. Pre-emergent herbicides have also demonstrated efficacy in controlling V. myuros and may be used in combination with post-emergent agents. We will collate existing data from a suite of small-scale, site-specific trials conducted over the last five years in western Washington and Oregon to develop best management practice guidelines for treating V. myuros. We will also complete an herbicide application experiment testing both pre- and post-emergent herbicides on V. myuros infestations across four sites.
American Pacific Islands Collaboration Team/Work Group Meeting and Pesticide Safety Train-the-Trainer Workshop
Zhiqiang Cheng, University of Hawaii
This project will continue the efforts of the American Pacific Islands Collaboration Team/Work Group to fulfill priorities identified in a needs assessment previously funded by the Western IPM Center. Specifically, we will hold a face-to-face train-the-trainer workshop to address priority areas previously identified; support face-to-face, virtual meetings and online communication; and collaborate in efforts to develop educational materials and needs for future trainings.
Developing an IPM Multi-Stakeholder Group for California Rice
Whitney Brim-DeForest, University of California
California rice systems have more herbicide-resistant weed species than any other crop or region in the United States. Although crop rotations are one of the most effective IPM tools for managing resistance, rotations are rarely practiced in California rice. One of the biggest impediments to adoption is the unknown economic impacts (both positive and negative) of changing to a new crop or cropping system. Many rice growers lack the information and tools necessary to make this decision. This project will develop a stakeholder work group focused on understanding the feasibility and impact of crop rotation as an IPM tool in rice, with a focus on economics, and to plan for long-term research projects that address the specifics of weed management and weed population dynamics.
Building Continuity Across State Invasive Plant Lists: Predicting Invasion Risk of Horticultural Plants
Doug Johnson, California Invasive Plant Council
Prevention is a key IPM approach for stopping the spread of invasive plants. Because many plants have an extensive lag phase before becoming invasive, prevention can be strengthened by predicting which plants may become invasive in the future in a given region. The Plant Risk Evaluator is an online assessment tool designed to predict the risk of plants becoming invasive. A primary focus of the tool has been on ornamental plants since horticulture has been a top pathway for introduction of non-native plants that later become invasive. This project will form a multi-state work group to expand the use of the Plant Risk Evaluator tool to guide listing of invasive plants and help prevent them from being introduced through horticulture and possibly expand the use of the tool to rate and “green light” ornamentals that do not pose a high risk of becoming invasive.
Outreach and Implementation
IPM for Western Managed Pollinator Protection Plans
Andony Melathopoulos, Oregon State University
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency mandates that states develop Managed Pollinator Protection Plans (MP3s) in order to improve pollinator health. In response, a number of states have come together under a national MP3 Working Group, including Western states included in this proposal, to develop common educational material to increase adoption of MP3s and develop uniform assessment tools. By working together we have identified two priorities for the Western Region: 1) education targeting right-of-way vegetation management and 2) better integration of MP3 practices with IPM. This project will develop a training module for licensed pesticide applicators on how to manage rights-of-way to encourage pollinator habitat and a series of four case studies in Oregon and New Mexico to help land managers better conceptualize how IPM and MP3s could be integrated in practice.
South American Palm Weevil Outreach and Extension
Sonia Rios, University of California
The South American palm weevil, Rhynchophorus palmarum, has the potential to cause significant damage to native and non-native palms in California. Not only are urban, beach and desert landscapes throughout California changing as a result of this pest, the estimated $70 million ornamental palm growing areas may be under additional regulatory scrutiny as it spreads. In addition, the insect has the potential to impact the commercial date industry in counties adjacent to heavily infested San Diego, as the weevil is known to attack the agriculturally important date palm that produces Deglet Noor and Medjool dates. This project will provide training to mitigate the South American palm weevil’s deleterious impacts to three target audiences: native habitat managers from public and private lands, urban ornamental tree growing and management sectors, including homeowners, and date producers.
Varroa Mite Tolerance in Hawaii’s Honeybees: Field and Laboratory Testing of a Dynamic System
Ethel Villalobos, University of Hawaii, $28,819
The Varroa mite is a deadly pest of honeybees and linked to a viral disease known as deformed wing virus. The development of resistant bees through selective breeding has been ongoing in the United States and Europe for decades. Natural behaviors, called hygienic behaviors, which are based on the inspection and removal of dead capped brood, are being used to reduce the mite load of bee colonies. This study will investigate the presence of mite-resistant populations in Hawaii and examine whether recapping behavior is a reliable proxy for mite resistance and if it is linked to reduced mite reproduction.
Identification of Environmental and Agronomic Factors Influencing Potato Powdery Scab Disease in the San Luis Valley, Colorado
Ana Cristina Fulladolsa, Colorado State University, $23,000
Spongospora subterranea (Ss) is a soil-borne pathogen that causes powdery scab in potato and can transmit the Potato mop-top virus (PMTV). Farmers try to predict powdery scab disease risk based on soil tests for Ss sporosori inoculum, but the disease is also influenced by production practices and environmental factors.
The objectives of this research are to identify environmental and management inputs that correlate with Ss soil inoculum level changes and the development of powdery scab and PMTV in field-grown potatoes; and to construct a mathematical model using those factors to aid agronomists and potato farmers in the San Luis Valley in making management decisions.
Habitat Management in Alfalfa Irrigation Ditches: Evaluating the Potential for Conservation Biological Control of Aphid Pests
Elizabeth Pringle, University of Nevada, $29,996
Aphids cause serious yield losses in Western alfalfa. The broad-spectrum insecticides typically used for aphid control can harm beneficial insects and lead to insecticide resistance. This project will investigate habitat management as a means to augment biological control by aphid predators in irrigated desert alfalfa. Weedy plants that occur naturally in irrigation ditches may act as sources of indigenous predators, and this project will investigate whether engineering this habitat would be effective as a management strategy to control alfalfa aphid pests.
Developing a New Method for Controlling Weeds Using Electricity: An Environmentally Friendly, Non-Herbicidal, Tree and Weed Killing Technique
Erik Lehnhoff, New Mexico State University, $29,999
Urban weed management in the United States costs billions of dollars and uses millions of pounds of herbicide annually, yet weeds remain abundant and problematic. Many cities, seeking to alleviate concerns about the health impacts of herbicides, have banned the use of some herbicides, which further exacerbates management difficulties.
This project will test, refine and showcase a new technology the project team previously developed to manage weeds safely and effectively using electricity, in suburban and urban environments. The project team previously demonstrated the system’s effectiveness, but refinements and advancements are needed to make it applicable for more situations and weed species, and to increase user friendliness.
Western IPM Kochia Work Group
Todd Gaines, Colorado State University, $29,993
This renewal of the 2019 Western IPM Kochia Work Group will focus on implementing and coordinating research and educational objectives for the widespread weed Kochia scoparia.
This effort will address three priorities identified during the 2019 work group meeting. The first is to establish long-term soil seedbank studies at multiple locations. The second is to develop standardized herbicide resistance testing and reporting protocols for kochia, including production and distribution of standard reference seed lines. The third is to continue the research and education coordination network to share results and develop new funding proposals to address additional work group priorities.
Mid Klamath Invasive Species Management Collaboration
Tanya Chapple, Mid Klamath Watershed Council, CA, $30,000
This project seeks to strengthen and build capacity of a long-established work group that includes the Karuk, Yurok and Hoopa tribes, the Quartz Valley Indian Reservation, two national forests and multiple resource conservation districts and watershed councils (among others.)
The work group will address invasive species concerns across political boundaries of Humboldt and Siskiyou counties, national forests, and the ancestral territories of the Karuk, Yurok and Hoopa tribes. The Mid Klamath region warrants its own invasive species management area due to considerations unique to the Klamath Mountains, such as their remote location, rugged terrain, tribal sovereignty, and committed community opposition to herbicide use.
Western Hemp IPM Work Group
Amanda Skidmore, New Mexico State University, $29,690
While production of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is rapidly expanding, development of IPM plans for the industry is a challenge because of a lack of science-based research available due to the crop being banned from production for more than 60 years. Also, because industrial hemp can be grown for fiber, food and forage, or medical uses, producers are essentially looking at three separate cropping systems. Although pests are similar across those systems, IPM practices need to be adapted for each based on product end-use.
This work group will address regional management challenges and stakeholder education. It will hold a workshop and produce educational materials for industrial hemp production (management guides, extension videos and a website) for the Western United States.
Outreach and Implementation
Demonstration and Outreach for Control of Stable Flies and Cattle Bunching on California Dairies
Sharif Aly, University of California, $23,000
Each spring, California dairy cows suffer stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) season. Stable flies are one of most serious pests of dairy cattle in the United States. High stable fly numbers will reduce weight gain, feed efficiency and milk production of dairy cows. The project team recently completed research on the epidemiology, risk factors and management of stable flies. Now it is important to extend this information to the dairy industry.
This effort will provide dairy producers, herd managers, dairy nutritionist and veterinarians in California outreach knowledge about stable fly biology and behavior, risk factors for cattle bunching and IPM-focused methods for fly control on dairies.
Development of an Integrated Pest Management Strategic Plan for Dairy Cattle in California
Alec Gerry, University of California, $14,986
To capture the current state of pest management in the California dairy industry, this project will produce a Pest Management Strategic Plan following the general guidance outlined by Oregon State University Extension for an IPM Strategic Planning Process. The resulting document will describe the modern dairy industry in California as well as the major pests, challenges to pest management, and critical needs for future research and regulatory action to support the dairy industry. Major pests and strategies to manage these pests will be identified by producers, veterinarians, and extension personnel and ranked by their economic importance.
IPM Strategic Planning for Organic and Conventional Brassicaceae Vegetable Crops in Oregon and Washington
Katie Murray, Oregon State University, $14,999
The Pacific Northwest is a premier production area for both conventional and organically grown vegetable Brassicaceae crops, including broccoli, Brussels sprout, cabbage, cauliflower, greens, horseradish, radish and turnip. Many pests of these crops have lengthy and overlapping population peaks which makes spray programs alone unsuccessful; instead, integrated approaches with cultural management and biocontrol are needed.
This project will develop an IPM Strategic Plan for brassica vegetable crops that documents the current practices and priorities of both organic and conventional farmers. The process will enable the industry to discuss and identify current and emerging pest management concerns and needs.
Aerobiology and IPM of Bacterial Blight in Carrot Seed Crops
Jeremiah Dung, Oregon State University
Starting the season with pest-free seed is a cornerstone of IPM in annual crop production systems. Central Oregon produces approximately 60% of the hybrid carrot seed used for carrot production in the United States and 40% of the hybrid carrot seed planted globally. The pathogen Xanthomonas hortorum pv. carotae commonly infects carrot seed and is a major concern to carrot growers in several states.
This project will develop a forecasting model for bacterial blight affecting hybrid carrot seed production in Oregon. The project team will study how airborne bacterial blight propogules vary through the season and correlate dispersal events to weather patterns. The weather-based forecasting model can then predict periods of high disease risk and improve management through better timing of bactericide applications and modified cultural practices.
Integrated Pest Management Strategies for Phragmites-Invaded Wetlands in the Western United States
Karin Kettenring, Utah State University
One of the biggest threats to wetlands in the Western U.S. is the invasive grass Phragmites australis. This plant – which is a noxious weed in many Western states and is on the Western Governors’ Association invasive species list – is extremely tall, dense, and aggressive and has taken over vast areas of wetlands. While herbicides are effective at killing Phragmites, native plants slowly or never return following Phragmites control.
The broad goal of this research is to restore native plant-dominated wetlands in the Western United States following invasive Phragmites control. Our objectives are to determine the most effective seeding techniques to maximize seedling survival, develop a systems model that predicts seedling survival across a range of abiotic conditions, and disseminate the research findings broadly throughout the West.
Sex in the Orchard: Determining Mating Success of Sterile Codling Moth with Molecular Markers
William Cooper, USDA-Agricultural Research Service Washington State
Despite decades of research progress in pheromone mating disruption, the codling moth is still the highest research priority of Washington pome fruit growers and there is interest in supplementing mating disruption programs with the release of sterile codling moths.
This project will develop a molecular technique to determine mating success of wild females with wild vs. sterile males using molecular characterization of the spermatophore to help understand the compatibility of these two techniques before large-scale implementation of sterile insect release.
Agroecosystem Impacts and Integrated Management of Kochia in North America
Todd Gaines, Colorado State University
Kochia, commonly called tumbleweed, has colonized virtually all arid and semi-arid ecosystems in North America. In fall- or spring-sown annual crops, uncontrolled kochia can cause 50 to 75% yield reductions. This working group creates and industry, government and university collaboration to build IPM programs for kochia control that include all management tools and herbicide stewardship.
The group will produce a coordinated plan for the management of kochia, including research and extension efforts. It will also collect baseline data on current costs and impacts of kochia and continue to build collaborations and facilitate the communication of research findings.
Pacific Islands Pesticide Safety Education Work Group
Zhiqiang Cheng, University of Hawaii
Pesticide applicator training supports traditional agriculture and the needs of regulatory agencies. Recent changes to Worker Protection Standard and federal pesticide applicator certification and training rules, as well as changes to pesticide product use patterns, increased educational requirements, concerns regarding pollinators and pesticide misuse issues have created significant educational needs in Hawaii and the American-affiliated Pacific islands including Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa and the Federated States of Micronesia.
This work group will identify the needs and priorities for educational materials for applicators in Hawaii and the American-affiliated Pacific Islands. The working group will outline EPA’s Pacific Island pesticide training objectives, the availability of on-line training and the future sustainability of pesticide safety training programs in Hawaii and the American-affiliated Pacific Islands.
Rodent Management Work Group
Niamh Quinn, University of California
Rodents are among the most economically significant pests in the world, causing billions of dollars’ worth of damage to agricultural crops and structures, as well as being vectors of disease that can cause death in humans. Best management practices for rodents are long overdue. Integrated pest management was created primarily for the management of invertebrates, and practices inherent to traditional IPM have to be adapted and altered to be effective for vertebrate pest management.
This work group will collaborate on modifying current rodent control practices for agricultural and urban sites with the goals of improving the effectiveness of rodent management and reducing rodenticide exposure to non-target species. Subgroups will focus on rodent management in agriculture, in urban areas, rodenticide exposure in wildlife, regulatory affairs and education of professional pest managers.
Critical Research and Extension Needs for Alfalfa Weevil and Forage Insect Pests in the Western Region
Kevin W Wanner, Montana State University
Alfalfa and alfalfa mixes account for more than half of all forage crop production in the United States. Alfalfa weevil management has remained static for several decades, but now producers and agriculturalists have observed increasing damage and poor control in the West. There is widespread agreement among extension specialists that this pest has increased in importance and research-based management recommendations need to be updated.
The objective of this work group is to provide a framework for collaborative research and extension to maximize science-based management recommendations relevant to production systems and local climate conditions across the Western Region.
Outreach and Implementation
Training on Developing an Invasive Plant Management Plan
Jutta Burger, California Invasive Plant Council
The California Invasive Plant Council and the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service recently produced a “Guide to Developing an Invasive Plant Management Plan” to support organizations trying to strengthen their land stewardship activities and develop IPM programs.
This outreach project will develop and deliver hands-on training based on the guide. The training will occur at the 2019 California Invasive Plant Council Symposium in October in Riverside, California, with the expectation of reaching 40 land managers from diverse organizations. Participants will receive all supporting training material and will be surveyed before and after the training to measure their gain in knowledge and understanding of the key elements to invasive plant management planning.
Pest Management Strategic Plan for Processing Tomato in California
Amber Vinchesi, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
Processing tomatoes are a high-value vegetable crop used to make tomato paste, diced tomatoes and whole-peel tomatoes. California contributes 35% of the global production and over 95% of the national processing tomato production.
This project with develop an initial Pest Management Strategic Plan for processing tomatoes to document baseline information on current pest management practices and identify processing tomato pest management research, regulatory and extension needs and priorities.
Pest Management Strategic Plan for Rice in California
Tunyalee Martin, University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources
California is ranked as a top rice producing state with over half a million acres in production with a value around $650 million. It differs from other U.S. rice-producing states due to climate, regulations and proximity to urban areas.
This pest management strategic plan, a first for California rice production, will identify rice pest management research, regulatory, and extension needs and priorities, record information on current pest management practices. It will serve as a baseline in the future to document changes in practices over time, as a catalyst for change, and as a way to evaluate extension products and tools.
Outreach and Implementation
The Identification and Control of Invasive Plants in Arizona
Elise Gornish and Larry Howery, University of Arizona
As a result of the invasion and subsequent negative impacts of non-native plant species across Arizona, many groups have developed noxious plant lists, including state agencies and non-profit organizations. Despite the abundance of these invasive species lists, missing from all of these resources is an equivalent or associated resource guide for managing high-priority weeds based on the results of field trials and published as agency reports or peer-reviewed studies. A comprehensive management guide that enumerates promising IPM strategies to control high-priority weeds is needed to address the demand of Arizona’s diverse stakeholder group. We propose to update an existing guide of invasive plants in Arizona, which has not been significantly updated since 2009. Like all outreach products listing invasive plant names and characteristics in Arizona, the existing guide does not currently provide IPM information for any species.
To update the guide, we plan to (1) ensure that the current listing is up-to-date and includes emerging invasives, (2) identify and organize all of the peer-reviewed and grey literature that describes weed-control experiments on the species highlighted in our guide and, (3) summarize this data in the guide to provide management recommendations. Although targeted for individuals who live and work in Arizona, the guide will also be useful for Western stakeholders in general because many of the plant species that prove to be particularly invasive in Arizona ecosystems are problematic elsewhere. We will deliver guide to agency offices and make it available on multiple websites online.
Low-Cost IPM for Medusahead and a Cost-Benefit Framework to Support Adoption
Jeremy James and Josh Davey, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources; Matt Rinella, USDA-ARS Montana
Rangelands represent the largest agroecosystem in the West, serving a critical role in the U.S. livestock industry and providing society a suite of essential ecosystem services. Medusahead, one of most serious rangeland plant pests, has progressively spread across a six state area, drastically reducing forage production and biodiversity while greatly increasing the frequency of catastrophic fires. Over the last five years our project team has focused on developing a novel low-cost IPM strategy for medusahead and quantifying economic relationships between pest abundance and livestock production. The goal of this proposal is to build off of these advances and develop an outreach program that catalyzes adoption of IPM programs for medusahead.
To address this goal we will partner with a team of potential early-adopters and (1) establish management-scale demonstrations of our low-cost tools involving timed grazing and a novel application of a growth regulating herbicide to sterilize medusahead seed (2) develop an online calculator that allows producers to enter ranch-specific information to estimate medusahead impacts on revenues and identify when adoption of our low-cost IPM tools will allow ranchers to break even or increase profits and (3) have our early-adopter team evaluate our demonstration results and cost-benefit framework supported by the online calculator to identify regional opportunities to initiate adoption. High treatment costs and uncertainty around treatment benefits has prevented IPM from being adopted on rangeland at any measurable scale. This project overcomes these barriers providing a major opportunity to recover essential ecological an economic function of rangeland across the West.
Enhancing IPM by Integration of Chemical and Biological Controls through Assessment of Selectivity of Chemistries and Function of Biocontrol
Isadora Bordini, Peter Ellsworth and Al Fournier, University of Arizona; Steven Naranjo, USDA-ARS Arizona
In this project initiation project, we will develop better information about effects of currently registered and experimental whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and Lygus bug insecticides on natural enemies, and investigate the effect of plot size in this type of study. We will conduct a non-target organism trial at Maricopa Agricultural Center, and we will examine selectivity of candidate insecticides (obj. 1) and effects of plot size on population dynamics and predation rates of whitefly natural enemies in cotton (obj. 2). We will conduct outreach to growers, pest managers and the scientific community. We will sample pests and natural enemies using established methods, and examine predation rates.
Data from this project will inform grower insecticide selection to minimize disruption of natural enemies, preserve biocontrol, and maintain chemical options for resistance management. Also, the information provided on plot size will help in determining the validity of conclusions from field trials of this type, and may improve interpretation of ecological data for mobile insects by IPM scientists. This project addresses stakeholder needs identified by the scientific community and growers, addressing Western IPM PMSP priorities of maintaining a variety of chemical controls, including selective insecticides, to preserve effective biological control and for resistance management for key pests. We will directly engage tribal pest managers from Gila River Indian Community and Ak Chin Indian Community. This project will advance IPM by directly promoting integration of chemical and biological control as well as the conservation of natural enemies, which are priorities expressed by the scientific and practitioner community.
Testing Community Functional Composition of Vegetation Buffers to Improve Post-Fire Invasion Resistance of Coastal Sage Scrub
Loralee Larios, Travis Bean and Noah Teller, University of California, Riverside; Elise Gornish, University of Arizona
Disturbances to ecosystems often provide opportunities for invasive species to establish and spread. The Canyon fires of 2017 burned over 11,800 acres in Chino Hills State Park, including threatened Coastal Sage Scrub (CSS) habitat that is home to numerous endemic species. Mediterranean annual grasses are present and spreading in patches nearby, and due to their prolific forage production their presence on the landscape threatens to further accelerate and intensify wildfires in the future and competitively exclude native vegetation. Reestablishing native vegetation may provide invasion resistance and prevent type conversion of CSS to annual grassland.
We propose to study how functional composition of species mixes used for seeding in bulldozer lines may constrain invasion, allowing interior portions of CSS habitat to regenerate sufficiently to reestablish natural invasion resistance. A greenhouse experiment will characterize traits of 20 native and five invasive species across multiple individuals and life stages. Traits include specific leaf area, specific root area, relative growth rate, seed mass, and phenology. We will create two distinct seed mixes, one with low functional diversity and traits as similar as possible to invaders, and the other with maximum functional diversity. We will measure relative abundance of plant species in bulldozer lines and colonizing nearby. We hypothesize that the low-dispersion community will more effectively suppress invasive species in the first year due to similar resource needs and reproductive strategies, but that the high-dispersion community will be more effective in the second year due to increased two-year survival of native species.
Utilizing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology to Assess Pest and Disease Pressure in Berry Crops
Jason Myer, Northwest Berry Foundation; David Bryla, USDA-ARS Oregon
Commercial UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) technology has opened many opportunities for growers. Employing high-resolution and multispectral cameras, it is now possible to see fields in unprecedented detail. This project aims to utilize UAV-derived field imagery to assess pests and diseases in berry crops. Working with Northwest berry growers, fields with a known presence of pests likely to be visible in aerial imagery will be mapped. These pests include blueberry shock virus (BlShV), Silver Leaf (Chondrostereum purpureum), Phytophthora and Armillaria (Armillaria mellea) in blueberries; in red raspberries- Phytophthora root rots, yellow rust (Phragmidium rubi-idaei), raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and spider mites; in black raspberries– Verticillium (Verticillium dahlia) and black raspberry necrosis virus (BRNV); in strawberries– spider mites, strawberry crown moth, and root weevils; in blackberries–raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) and blackberry rust (Phragmidium violaceum). Flights will be timed when symptoms are most evident. Imagery will be taken in RGB, red-edge, near-infrared, and infrared spectrums. Ground observation data will be overlaid onto aerial imagery to determine what pests and diseases can be identified and quantified from the imagery. The results will be disseminated through industry newsletters, grower workshops, and field demonstrations. Results will also be used to develop future projects aimed at further refining and implementing UAV technologies into standard IPM programs for berry crops.
An Integrated Weed Management Approach for Controlling Kochia in Wheat Using Physical and Cultural Tactics
Steve Young, Earl Creech and Corey Ransom, Utah State University
Weeds affect production systems by reducing yields, impeding harvest operations, and increasing the soil weed seed bank. In conventional systems, herbicides are most commonly used to control weeds, yet efficacy is declining for some of the most challenging weeds, such as kochia. Therefore, finding alternative ways to enhance the competitive ability of crops is critical in limiting the growth of kochia and its detrimental effects on production systems.
In this one-year preliminary study, field experiments will be conducted using 1) cover crops and mulches to suppress kochia, 2) planting dates to avoid kochia emergence and 3) seeding rates to provide wheat with a competitive advantage. Grower farms and university land with moderate-to-heavy infestations of kochia will be used as sites. Non-destructive measurements (e.g., efficacy) will be taken during active crop growth and destructive samples (e.g., biomass) will be taken at the end of the season. Through this study, a combination of physical tactics that are matched with a set of cultural tactics will be identified specifically for controlling kochia in the wheat-growing regions of Utah and southern Idaho. As an outcome, growers will be surveyed at a late summer field day to determine the value of the approach and to develop follow-up studies. The goals of the project align well with the missions of the Western IPM Center, which is to foster the development and adoption of integrated pest management, the center’s “Invasive Species in the West" Signature Program, and the WERA-77 "Managing Invasive Weeds in Wheat” Working Group.
Novel Control of the Potato Zebra Chip Pathogen and its Psyllid Vector Using FANA Antisense Oligonucleotide Gene Silencing
William Cooper and Kylie Swisher, USDA-ARS Washington; Wayne Hunter, USDA-ARS Florida
Zebra chip disease causes yield losses to potato production in the Western United States. The pathogen that causes zebra chip, "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum", is transmitted to potato by the potato psyllid. There are no methods to directly control zebra chip, so growers rely on calendar-day based insecticide applications to reduce populations of the vector. The overall goal of our proposal is to demonstrate that FANA-based gene silencing therapy can provide a novel approach for managing the zebra chip pathogen and its psyllid vector. FANA gene silencing does not involve genetically modified organisms like other gene-silencing therapies, and is highly specific to target organisms.
Specific objectives are to use laboratory and greenhouse assays to determine if FANA products can 1) reduce pathogen titers and development of zebra chip symptoms in potato, 2) reduce pathogen titers in psyllids, and 3) decrease vector performance. Results will provide proof-of-concept for the use of FANA technology to control insect pests and pathogens of crops. Completion of this one-year project initiation study will lead to future trials examining the efficacy of treatments under field-management conditions, and to the development of this technology against related pathogens and psyllids occurring on other crops or other pests and pathogens of potato. Further development of FANA technology beyond this 1-year project could lead to development of novel tools to manage plant pests and pathogens, and substantially reduce or eliminate the use of calendar-based pesticide applications used to manage challenging pests and pathogens such as potato psyllid and zebra chip.
Informed Risks and Information-Driven Decision Making for Spider Mites
Ann George, Washington Hop Commission; Doug Walsh and Jennifer Sherman, Washington State University; David Gent, USDA-ARS Oregon
The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is pest of numerous plants worldwide. Hop is a preferred host of spider mites, and spider mites are an annual problem in most commercial growing regions worldwide. Management of this pest is increasingly difficult due to widespread resistance to multiple miticides. A central component of a successful IPM system is the ability to make crop management decisions with relative certainty that the management actions will avoid crop damage and minimize economic risk. However, action thresholds for spider mites supported by empirical data do not exist.
Drawing from extensive historical data sets, we proposed to: 1. Identify risk factors for spider mite damage to hop cones and formalize risk factors into a decision aid to estimate the likelihood of crop damage. 2. Develop and deliver a stakeholder-driven outreach program that explains, integrates, and demonstrates new concepts for spider mite management to producers and their advisers. The association of key predator species and cost of management errors will be considered explicitly in a decision theoretic framework to make this information fully transparent to users and considered in setting treatment thresholds. This initiating project aligns perfectly with stakeholder priorities articulated in the 2015 Pest Management Strategic Plan for U.S. Hops, priority areas for the Western IPM Center, and the National Road Map for IPM. Successful completion of this project will provide the foundation for future work to finally develop and implement a decision aid for this important pest.
Developing Effective Bed Bug Outreach Programs for Diverse Clientele in the West
Project Director: Andrew Sutherland, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources
This work group will consider new and underserved groups associated with bed bug management in the West and review effective outreach programs to educate these stakeholders about bed bug prevention and management, focusing on IPM tactics.
Outreach and Implementation
Enhanced Implementation of the Online Soil Solarization Forecasting Model
Project Director: Jennifer Parke, Oregon State University
Soilborne pathogens and weeds are some of the most costly pests affecting nursery-crop production systems. To support the adoption of pesticide-free soil solarization, Parke’s team developed a model to enable nursery growers to determine the feasibility and length of time necessary to disinfest soil by solarization. Specific project goals are improvement of the web interface, and holding workshops to demonstrate the online tool.
Sudden Oak Death: Prevent and Prepare Project
Project Director: Brendan Twieg, Mid Klamath Watershed Council
The mid-Klamath is the home of the Karuk Tribe and is at high risk of Phytophthora ramorum infestation. This project will allow the Mid Klamath Watershed Council and the Karuk Tribe to reach out to the community and prepare a response to this pathogen, which causes sudden oak death. The project goals are to prevent sudden oak death establishment through education and outreach, monitor for occurrence and develop a rapid-response plan.
Wyoming School Integrated Pest Management Outreach and Training
Project Director: John Connett, University of Wyoming
Effective, sustainable IPM programs in schools reduce the exposure of children and school personnel to pesticides and pests whose allergens are asthma triggers. This project will pilot IPM training workshops to six school districts that have a strong willingness to implement IPM.
Utah Tree Fruit IPM Practices Evaluation
Project Director: Marion Murray, Utah State University
This project will survey tree fruit growers in Utah to evaluate IPM practices to determine the level and intensity of IPM use, demographics that may influence adoption, impediments to adoption, economic impacts and educational and research needs.
Updating the Pest (and Pollinator) Management Strategic Plan for Western U.S. Alfalfa Seed Production
Project Director: Shane Johnson, Northwest Alfalfa Seed Growers Association
An emphasis in this PMSP update will be integrating pollinator management, as alfalfa seed has unique needs and the balance between pest management and pollinator safety is critical.
Pest Management Strategic Plan for California Prunes
Project Director: Gary Van Sickle, California Specialty Crop Council
The California Specialty Crops Council will update the PMSP for prunes to document pest-management priorities for growers.
Establishing Insect Pest Management Needs and Priorities for Hemp Grown in the High Plains and Rocky Mountains
Project Director: Whitney Cranshaw, Colorado State University
Hemp (Cannabis sativa) is a crop that has a long but peculiar history in the United States. Historically harvested for fiber, a great many things have changed in the 65 to 70 years since it was last commercially grown. This project seeks to describe the insects associated with the crop and define the insect pest management needs associated with growing hemp in the West.
Distribution and Diversity of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Eastern Oregon Grass Seed Production
Project Director: Kenneth Frost, Oregon State University
Barley yellow dwarf is a disease of small grains and cereals caused by the barley yellow dwarf virus. This project seeks to characterize the genetic diversity of virus strains affecting susceptible perennial ryegrass crops grown for seed and nearby cereal crops to better understand which strain or set of strains result in disease, determine if insecticides reduce the occurrence, accumulation or diversity of the virus, and examine the relationship between barley yellow dwarf incidence and seed yield.
Increasing the Adoption of Alfalfa Weevil Integrated Pest Management in the Western Region
Project Director: Kevin Wanner, Montana State University
Alfalfa weevil is the primary economic pest of forage alfalfa, a crop grown on 1.7 million acres in Montana and 17.8 million acres nationally. The objectives of this project are to quantify the current status of alfalfa weevil management in Montana and its impediments, conduct a pilot evaluation of areawide, real-time monitoring of alfalfa weevil populations and evaluate the accuracy of the degree-day model to predict alfalfa weevil development across different regions of Montana.
Integrating Mechanical or Chemical Control with Biological Control for Improved Saltcedar Management at Southwestern Reservoirs
Project Director: Erik Lehnhoff, New Mexico State University
Project Director: David H. Gent, Oregon State University
Canopy Modification for Macadamia Felted Coccid Management in Macadamia Nut Orchards in Hawaii
Don’t forget about the seedbank when you are thinking about weed control.
When researchers think about weed control in crop production, we often think about ‘short-term’ results, i.e. weed control after 30 days, weed control after 90 days, weed control at harvest, etc. But weeds and weed control efforts in one cropping season can significantly influence the density and composition of weeds in following years. The carryover between seasons is accomplished via the weed seedbank and weed control successes and failures are reflected by changes that occur in this reservoir (Figure 1). In good years, weeds are successfully controlled and few to no seeds may enter the seedbank. In bad years, when weeds escape management strategies, rogue plants may flower, set seed, and contribute to this genetic stockpile.
Figure 1. The soil seedbank cycle.
Why is the seedbank important with respect to weed control?
Numerous studies have demonstrated that as weed seed numbers increase, so do the numbers of weeds that survive management strategies (Diehlman et al. 1999; Hartzler and Roth 1993; Sparks et al. 2003; Taylor and Hartzler 2000). In other words, the greater the number of seeds in the seedbank, the greater the number of weeds that may emerge, and the greater the number of plants that may escape chemical or cultural control practices. Weed escapes necessitate that growers engage in additional management practices that may have been unplanned and that add to the cost of crop production. Increased seedbank/in-crop weed densities could also facilitate the development of herbicide resistance. According to Jasieniuk et al. (1996), where weed infestations are heavy, the probability of selecting for resistance can also be high, even if the mutation rate (that leads to the development of resistance) is low.
How do you manage the seedbank?
So, how do we specifically target the seedbank for weed control?
- Increase seed mortality. For example: seeds are not impervious to decay and damage; pathogens can colonize seeds in the soil whereas birds, small rodents and insects will feed upon them. Studies have shown that farm-level management practices (e.g. tillage, cover cropping, pesticide use) can affect weed seed predation (Menalled et al. 2006), although landscape level factors (e.g.habitat diversity, predator diversity) ultimately influence in-crop seed survival, as well (Trichard et al. 2013). Think about conserving weed seed predators like ground beetles.
- Don’t let seed return to the soil. Your grandmother was spot on: ‘One year of seeding means many years of weeding’. Prevention can assume many forms: handweeding, cleaning equipment between production sites, mowing weeds prior before flowering, and screening irrigation water to prevent seed immigration. Prevention should be during the whole season, not just during the cropping season.
In short, if you really want to reduce the seedbank, you’ll need to attack it on multiple fronts: i.e. maximizing seed loss (Figure 2) and minimizing seed return (Figure 3).
Figure 2. Generalized (across all cropping systems) Best Management Products (BMPs) for maximizing seed loss. Figure 3. Generalized (across all cropping systems) Best Management Products (BMPs) for minimizing seed return.
Weeds will always find a way into your orchard (for instance, you can’t stop the wind from blowing), but you can maximize the impact that the seedbank has on your (current and future) level(s) of weed control. The ultimate goal of weed control is to protect this year’s yields AND to try and reduce pest densities in coming seasons.
Diehlman et al. 1999. Weed Science. 47:81-89.
Hartzler and Roth. 1993. Weed Technology. 7:611-614.
Jasieniuk et al. 1996. Weed Science. 46:176-193.
Menalled et al. 2006. Handbook of Sustainable Weed management. The Haworth Press, Inc.