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what weed produces spiky seed

What Weed Has a Round Prickly Seed Pod?

Datura, a night-blooming flower sometimes raised in home gardens, is also known as Jimsonweed or Thornapple (Datura stramonium). Jimsonweed is a contraction of Jamestown and is the name that early settlers and British soldiers gave the plants. Thornapple is an appropriate common name because it aptly describes the round, prickly seedpod that develop after the spent flowers fall off the plant. The prickly seedpods prevent animals from eating the toxic seeds.

Description

Jimsonweed grows to heights of between 1 and 5 feet. Its leaves’ edges are toothed edges and nearly egg shaped with pointed ends. Their length ranges from 2 to 8 inches. Funnel-shaped flowers are 2-1/2 to 4 inches long and open to a trumpetlike bell in white, violet or lavender. The plant’s fruit is a spiny pod measuring roughly 2 inches in diameter. The seedpods grow as they ripen and the seeds mature. Ripe seedpods burst open, scattering the seeds.

  • Jimsonweed grows to heights of between 1 and 5 feet.
  • Its leaves’ edges are toothed edges and nearly egg shaped with pointed ends.

Datura Species

Most species are low-growing, shrublike or spreading perennials or are prolifically reseeding annuals. D. wrightii is the species that is common to the Western United States. Rank-smelling leaves and large, white flowers that are occasionally tinged with purple characterize this plant. A sprawling perennial, the plants have enormous taproots that may extend deeper than 2 feet into the ground. Its geographic range extends from California to Utah, Arizona, New Mexico and into Texas. D. wrightii is considered a cosmopolitan annual weed that seeds prolifically. D. discolor is a native species found in riverbeds and desert washes in Arizona and southeastern California. It has smaller flowers. D, stramonium is naturalized throughout the United States. D. stramonium is distinguished from D. wrightii because the plants have smaller flowers and a more erect growing habit.

  • Most species are low-growing, shrublike or spreading perennials or are prolifically reseeding annuals.
  • D. discolor is a native species found in riverbeds and desert washes in Arizona and southeastern California.
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History

The contraction of “Jamestown weed” is the origin of the name Jimsonweed. Soldiers and settlers were poisoned after eating the plant’s leaves in salads. Long ago in India and Russia, robbers would grind up the seeds of Jimsonweed and mix them with water as a way to sedate, induce amnesia or daze people they intended to victimize and rob. Members of the ancient Indian religious order that worshipped Kali, the goddess of destruction, would also grind the seeds and feed them to people before robbing and/ murdering them. In China, Jimsonweed was prescribed for the sedative effects, for foot diseases and used for flatulence.

Toxic Effects

All parts of Datura or Jimsonweed are poisonous. Keep places where livestock graze free of the plant. Ridding an area of plants is difficult and time consuming because of the ease with which seeds spread. Some people may experience skin irritation from contact with these plants, so wear protective clothing or gear. Symptoms of Jimsonweed poisoning include blurred vision, confusion, dilated pupils, dry mouth, difficulty urinating, hallucinations and tachycardia. Although it rarely causes death, later signs of toxicity may include coma and seizures. Emergency medical attention is necessary in cases of suspected Jimsonweed poisoning. Poisoning is treated with activated charcoal and gastric lavage. Severe sinus tachycardia is treated with beta-blockers.

Learn More About Burr Medic And Its Control

If your lawn is filled with prickly burrs, you likely have burr weeds. With a little vigilance, however, it is possible to control burr medic and improve the health of your lawn. Read on to learn more.

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What is Burr Medic?

Burr medic (Medicago polymorpha), also known as burr weed, is a type of trifoliate weed that can quickly spread throughout the lawn and garden if not controlled.

You can recognize this weed by its green serrated leaves and reddish purple colored stems that creep closely along the ground. It also has small yellow flowers. After flowering, the tiny green pods produce prickly burrs. These will eventually dry up and turn brown, spreading seeds everywhere.

Burr medic germinates in fall and winter, and flowers in spring.

Types of Burr Weeds

There are several types of burr weeds, most of which can be found growing in a wide range of conditions and soil types. However, burr medic seems to favor poor soils, such as heavy clay. Like other trifoliate weeds, such as clover, burr weed has leaves that are grouped together in threes.

Other burr species include:

  • Woolly medic (M. minima)
  • Spotted burr medic (M. arabica)
  • Barrel medic (M. truncatula)
  • Cut-leaved medic (M. laciniata)

How to Kill Burr Medic

Since burr medic spreads and reproduces by seed, the best way to control the weed is to remove it before it has a chance to set its seed, even better before it flowers.

While burr medic can be controlled with regular mowing, this will not kill the weed. It is also tolerant of most herbicides, though non-selective types can help kill the plant as well as boiling water. Neither of these, however, will kill the burrs that are left behind in the lawn or garden.

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Therefore, you may want to use an old woolen blanket to drag over the area first, which should snag most of these burrs. Then the area can be treated with a pre-emergent, such as corn gluten meal, to prevent germination of any seeds left behind. Late summer or early fall is a good time to do this.

The use of broadleaf post-emergent weed killer, like Weed-B-Gone, prior to flowering (winter/early spring) can help as well.

Once burr medic has been eradicated, you’ll want to improve the health of your soil to minimize its return by amending it with organic matter or compost.

Note: Chemical control should only be used as a last resort, as organic approaches are safer and much more environmentally friendly.